Description : Underwater vehicles and underwater moorings are increasing in tactical importance. As such, it is critical to have a robust and secure communication system connecting underwater vehicles on a long seaborne mission and a ground station. As a matter of fact, the deployment of efficient communication links with underwater vehicles is one of the greatest technological challenges presently confronted by the world's naval forces. To circumvent most of the limitations involved in the use of RF or acoustic channels for perfectly secure communications with underwater vehicles, it is worth considering the feasibility of an optical channel to facilitate a two-way satellite communication link secured via perfectly secure ciphers enabled by a quantum key distribution protocol. This book offers a concise review of underwater communications systems. Our approach is pedagogical, making a strong emphasis on the physics behind the attenuating properties of the oceanic environment and the propagation of electromagnetic signals in the ELF, VLF, and optical bands. We assume the reader is familiar with the basic principles of classical electrodynamics and optics. The system design, components, and noise analysis of an underwater optical communications device are discussed in detail. Furthermore, we offer simulations of the performance of the communication system for different types of ocean waters. Our final conclusion is that it appears to be feasible to design and build underwater communications using optical classical and quantum channels secured with quantum key distribution protocols.
Description : This research concerns the development of an adaptive receiver for underwater communication. In this type of wireless link, the radio channel is replaced by an underwater acoustic channel, which is strongly dependent on the physical properties of the ocean medium and its boundaries, the link geometry and the ambient noise. Traditional acoustic communications have involved a priori matching of the signaling parameters to the expected characteristics of the channel. To achieve more robust communications, as well as high quality of service, it is necessary to develop a type of adaptive receiver for the acoustic link. This process involves estimating the channel scattering function by processing the received Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) acoustic signal. This information is used by an innovative receiver introduced for usage in the underwater environment. The research also involves the development of a robust acquisition system for the acoustic communication signal. The major design goal is the receiver's robustness on a Doppler distorted fast varying multipath fading channel, for applications in multiuser environments. Another important design goal is low complexity in signal processing. The proposed receiver is able to adapt in the acoustic channel variations. Experimental results prove the effectiveness of the receiver.
Description : Underwater acoustic digital signal processing and communications is an area of applied research that has witnessed major advances over the past decade. Rapid developments in this area were made possible by the use of powerful digital signal processors (DSPs) whose speed, computational power and portability allowed efficient implementation of complex signal processing algorithms and experimental demonstration of their performance in a variety of underwater environments. The early results served as a motivation for the development of new and improved signal processing methods for underwater applications, which today range from classical of autonomous underwater vehicles and sonar signal processing, to remote control underwater wireless communications. This book presents the diverse areas of underwater acoustic signal processing and communication systems through a collection of contributions from prominent researchers in these areas. Their results, both new and those published over the past few years, have been assembled to provide what we hope is a comprehensive overview of the recent developments in the field. The book is intended for a general audience of researchers, engineers and students working in the areas of underwater acoustic signal processing. It requires the reader to have a basic understanding of the digital signal processing concepts. Each topic is treated from a theoretical perspective, followed by practical implementation details. We hope that the book can serve both as a study text and an academic reference.
Description : A blend of introductory material and advanced signal processing and communication techniques, of critical importance to underwater system and network development This book, which is the first to describe the processing techniques central to underwater OFDM, is arranged into four distinct sections: First, it describes the characteristics of underwater acoustic channels, and stresses the difference from wireless radio channels. Then it goes over the basics of OFDM and channel coding. The second part starts with an overview of the OFDM receiver, and develops various modules for the receiver design in systems with single or multiple transmitters. This is the main body of the book. Extensive experimental data sets are used to verify the receiver performance. In the third part, the authors discuss applications of the OFDM receiver in i) deep water channels, which may contain very long separated multipath clusters, ii) interference-rich environments, where an unintentional interference such as Sonar will be present, and iii) a network with multiple users where both non-cooperative and cooperative underwater communications are developed. Lastly, it describes the development of a positioning system with OFDM waveforms, and the progress on the OFDM modem development. Closely related industries include the development and manufacturing of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) and scientific sensory equipment. AUVs and sensors in the future could integrate modems, based on the OFDM technology described in this book. Contents includes: Underwater acoustic channel characteristics/OFDM basics/Peak-to-average-ratio control/Detection and Doppler estimation (Doppler scale and CFO)/Channel estimation and noise estimation/A block-by-block progressive receiver and performance results/Extensions to multi-input multi-output OFDM/Receiver designs for multiple users/Cooperative underwater OFDM (Physical layer network coding and dynamic coded cooperation)/Localization with OFDM waveforms/Modem developments A valuable resource for Graduate and postgraduate students on electrical engineering or physics courses; electrical engineers, underwater acousticians, communications engineers
Description : Following underwater acoustic channel modeling, this book investigates the relationship between coherence time and transmission distances. It considers the power allocation issues of two typical transmission scenarios, namely short-range transmission and medium-long range transmission. For the former scenario, an adaptive system is developed based on instantaneous channel state information. The primary focus is on cooperative dual-hop orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM).This book includes the decomposed fountain codes designed to enable reliable communications with higher energy efficiency. It covers the Doppler Effect, which improves packet transmission reliability for effective low-complexity mirror-mapping-based intercarrier interference cancellation schemes capable of suppressing the intercarrier interference power level. Designed for professionals and researchers in the field of underwater acoustic communications, this book is also suitable for advanced-level students in electrical engineering or computer science.
Description : The AN/UQC-1(XG-1) general-purpose underwater communications set was developed based on Navy Electronics Laboratory (NEL) designed equipment of this type used with the bathyscaph TRIESTE. The AN/UQC-1(XG-1) is compatible with and capable of replacing the present standard AN/UQC-1 sonar. It offers the following advantages over the AN/UQC-1: improved efficiency; greater range; reduced weight, size, and power consumption; and simplified maintenance.
Description : This literature study presents an overview of underwater acoustic networking. It provides a background and describes the state of the art of all networking facets that are relevant for underwater applications. This report serves both as an introduction to the subject and as a summary of existing protocols, providing support and inspiration for the development of network architectures.
Description : Combines theory with real-world case studies to give a comprehensive overview of modern optical wireless technology.