Description : The Ancient and Medieval Roots of Insurance This richly detailed history examines the: "(i) origin and development of the contract of Bottomry and Respondentia down to the 11th century A.D. (ii) the traces of methods of insurance other than life known to the Ancients (iii) The Question whether life assurance was known and practised by the Romans or their predecessors (iv) The history of the development of mediaeval insurance in the Low Countries from the family group system and of modern insurance therefrom" (1)." Originally submitted as a thesis to the University of London by the late Dr. C.F. Trenerry, whose intention it was to recast it for publication. Edited by Ethel L. Gover and Agnes S. Paul. CONTENTS Introduction and Summary PART I Origin and Development of Contract of Bottomry and Respondentia Down to the 11th Century A.D. CH. I The Origin and Development of the Contract of Bottomry CH. II The Origin of the Contract of Bottomry, Prior to 250 B.C. CH. III The Contract as Known to the Hindus CH. IV The Contract as Known to the Greeks CH. V The Contract as Known to the Romans PART II Traces of Methods of Insurance Other than Life Known to the Ancients CH. VI Marine Insurance (Other than Bottomry) Practised by the Romans CH. VII Contracts of Indemnity Used by the Romans PART III Whether Life Assurance was Known to the Ancients CH. VIII Life Assurance as Known to the Romans CH. IX Probability that the Romans Had Some Means by which Loss Arising through Death Might be Reduced or Nullified CH. X Allusions to Longevity, Mortality, Etc., by Early Writers CH. XI Sufficiency of the Knowledge of Mathematics and of Finance Possessed by the Romans During the Early Empire for the Calculations Required CH. XII Tables of Annuity Values Which Were Sanctioned by the Roman Law for Purposes of the Lex Falcidia CH. XIII Actuarial Knowledge Not Essential for Transaction of Life Assurance Business CH. XIV Manner of Making Contracts of Non-mutual Life Assurance and of Transacting the Legal Part of the Business CH. XV Nature and Essential Parts of a Contract of Life Assurance CH. XVI Societies Among the Greeks and Romans Which Provided Funds at Death or Members for Burial or Other Purposes, With or Without Other Benefits CH. XVII The Roman Civilian (I.E. Non-Military) Societies CH. XVIII The Roman Veterans' Societies CH. XIX The Roman Military Societies CH. XX Non-Mutual Contracts for Payment on Death of a Person or Persons as Known to the Romans CH. XXI Examination of Other Extracts from Roman Law which Deal with Contracts of a Similar Nature PART IV Development of Modern Insurance from the Family Group System as Exemplified in Belgium CH. XXII Derivation of Modern Insurance CH. XXIII Development of Communal Insurance from Family Group System CH. XXIV Non-Mutual Insurance Between 1227 and 1310 CH. XXV Marine Insurance CH. XXVI Life Assurance CH. XXVII Marine and Other Insurance in Other Countries APPENDICES BIBLIOGRAPHY"
Description : Insurance is the world’s largest economic industry, providing a form of security that more than triples global defence expenditure. However, little is know about the form of security insurance provides. This book offers a genealogical interrogation of the relationship between security and risk through its materialisation in insurance. This work seeks to argue that insurance practices ascribe value to life and in so doing produce a form of security central to the understanding of contemporary liberal governance and security. Lobo-Guerrero theorizes insurance as a biopolitical effect that results from the continuous interaction of an ‘entrepreneurial form of power’, and traditional forms of sovereign security. Through rich empirical cases and a unique theorization, the book breaks apart the traditional division between security studies, political economy and political theory. The author explores this theory in relation to specific issues such as the use of life insurance in the molecular age, the use of insurance to securitize against environmental catastrophic risk, specialist products such as kidnap and ransom insurance, as well as the use of insurance to counter maritime piracy in the twenty-first century. Providing an important and original contribution to the study of the biopolitics of security, this work will be of great interest to all scholars of security studies, international relations and international political economy.
Description : One of the most important functions of government--risk management--is one of the least well understood. Moving beyond familiar public functions--spending, taxation, and regulation--Moss spotlights government's pivotal role as a risk manager, revealing the nature and extent of this function, which touches almost every aspect of economic life.
Description : Although trade connects distant people and regions, bringing cultures closer together through the exchange of material goods and ideas, it has not always led to unity and harmony. From the era of the Crusades to the dawn of colonialism, exploitation and violence characterized many trading ventures, which required vessels and convoys to overcome tremendous technological obstacles and merchants to grapple with strange customs and manners in a foreign environment. Yet despite all odds, experienced traders and licensed brokers, as well as ordinary people, travelers, pilgrims, missionaries, and interlopers across the globe, concocted ways of bartering, securing credit, and establishing relationships with people who did not speak their language, wore different garb, and worshipped other gods. Religion and Trade: Cross-Cultural Exchanges in World History, 1000-1900 focuses on trade across religious boundaries around the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic and Indian Oceans during the second millennium. Written by an international team of scholars, the essays in this volume examine a wide range of commercial exchanges, from first encounters between strangers from different continents to everyday transactions between merchants who lived in the same city yet belonged to diverse groups. In order to broach the intriguing yet surprisingly neglected subject of how the relationship between trade and religion developed historically, the authors consider a number of interrelated questions: When and where was religion invoked explicitly as part of commercial policies? How did religious norms affect the everyday conduct of trade? Why did economic imperatives, political goals, and legal institutions help sustain commercial exchanges across religious barriers in different times and places? When did trade between religious groups give way to more tolerant views of "the other" and when, by contrast, did it coexist with hostile images of those decried as "infidels"? Exploring captivating examples from across the world and spanning the course of the second millennium, this groundbreaking volume sheds light on the political, economic, and juridical underpinnings of cross-cultural trade as it emerged or developed at various times and places, and reflects on the cultural and religious significance of the passage of strange persons and exotic objects across the many frontiers that separated humankind in medieval and early modern times.
Description : What did it mean to be reasonable in the Age of Reason? Classical probabilists from Jakob Bernouli through Pierre Simon Laplace intended their theory as an answer to this question--as "nothing more at bottom than good sense reduced to a calculus," in Laplace's words. In terms that can be easily grasped by nonmathematicians, Lorraine Daston demonstrates how this view profoundly shaped the internal development of probability theory and defined its applications.
Description : The world's most comprehensive, well documented, and well illustrated book on this subject. With extensive index, 150 color photographs and illustrations. Free of charge in digital PDF format on Google Books.
Description : With an appendix of source materials. The winner of the prestigious Yorke Prize, this essay is still cited in the literature of commercial and international law. "Mr. Mitchell has satisfactorily risen to the occasion, and has given us an interesting study of the early history of that system of universal practical law which the traders of the Middle Ages recognised as binding upon them in their international dealings. Customary in its origin and principles, summary in its jurisdiction and equitable in its spirit, the Law Merchant has been a potent factor in the development of the modern commercial law of all the countries of Europe, and Mr. Mitchell's account of its beginnings is full of suggestion.": Juridical Review 16 (1904) 446.
Description : Published in two volumes, the first part of this title covers the origin, recognition and distinguishing features of the insurance contract. The second part details the principles of pre-codified Dutch insurance law from general requirements to the termination of insurance contracts.