Description : Crystallography may be described as the science of the structure of materi als, using this word in its widest sense, and its ramifications are apparent over a broad front of current scientific endeavor. It is not surprising, therefore, to find that most universities offer some aspects of crystallography in their undergraduate courses in the physical sciences. It is the principal aim of this book to present an introduction to structure determination by X-ray crystal lography that is appropriate mainly to both final-year undergraduate studies in crystallography, chemistry, and chemical physics, and introductory post graduate work in this area of crystallography. We believe that the book will be of interest in other disciplines, such as physics, metallurgy, biochemistry, and geology, where crystallography has an important part to play. In the space of one book, it is not possible either to cover all aspects of crystallography or to treat all the subject matter completely rigorously. In particular, certain mathematical results are assumed in order that their applications may be discussed. At the end of each chapter, a short bibliog raphy is given, which may be used to extend the scope of the treatment given here. In addition, reference is made in the text to specific sources of information. We have chosen not to discuss experimental methods extensively, as we consider that this aspect of crystallography is best learned through practical experience, but an attempt has been made to simulate the interpretive side of experimental crystallography in both examples and exercises.
Description : The advances in and applications of x-ray and neutron crystallography form the essence of this new edition of this classic textbook, while maintaining the overall plan of the book that has been well received in the academic community since the first edition in 1977. X-ray crystallography is a universal tool for studying molecular structure, and the complementary nature of neutron diffraction crystallography permits the location of atomic species in crystals which are not easily revealed by X-ray techniques alone, such as hydrogen atoms or other light atoms in the presence of heavier atoms. Thus, a chapter discussing the practice of neutron diffraction techniques, with examples, broadens the scope of the text in a highly desirable way. As with previous editions, the book contains problems to illustrate the work of each chapter, and detailed solutions are provided. Mathematical procedures related to the material of the main body of the book are not discussed in detail, but are quoted where needed with references to standard mathematical texts. To address the computational aspect of crystallography, the suite of computer programs from the fourth edition has been revised and expanded. The programs enable the reader to participate fully in many of the aspects of x-ray crystallography discussed in the book. In particular, the program system XRAY* is interactive, and enables the reader to follow through, at the monitor screen, the computational techniques involved in single-crystal structure determination, albeit in two dimensions, with the data sets provided. Exercises for students can be found in the book, and solutions are available to instructors.
Description : New textbooks at all levels of chemistry appear with great regularity. Some fields such as basic biochemistry, organic reaction mechanisms, and chemical thermodynamics are well represented by many excellent texts, and new or revised editions are published sufficiently often to keep up with progress in research. However, some areas of chemistry, especially many of those taught at the graduate level, suffer from a real lack of up to-date textbooks. The most serious needs occur in fields that are rapidly changing. Textbooks in these subjects usually have to be written by scientists actually involved in the research that is advancing the field. It is not often easy to persuade such individuals to set time aside to help spread the knowledge they have accumulated. Our goal, in this series, is to pinpoint areas of chemistry where recent progress has outpaced what is covered in any available textbooks, and then seek out and persuade experts in these fields to produce relatively concise but instructive intro ductions to their fields. These should serve the needs of one-semester or one-quarter graduate courses in chemistry and biochemistry. In some cases, the availability of texts in active research areas should help stimulate the creation of new courses. Charles R. Cantor v Preface to the Second Edition Since the publication of the previous edition in 1994, X-ray crystallography of proteins has advanced by improvements in existing techniques and by addition of new techniques.
Description : The renowned Oxford Chemistry Primers series, which provides focused introductions to a range of important topics in chemistry, has been refreshed and updated to suit the needs of today's students, lecturers, and postgraduate researchers. The rigorous, yet accessible, treatment of each subject area is ideal for those wanting a primer in a given topic to prepare them for more advanced study or research. Moreover, cutting-edge examples and applications throughout the texts show the relevance of the chemistry being described to current research and industry. Learning features provided in the primers, including questions at the end of every chapter and interactive online MCQs, encourage active learning and promote understanding. Furthermore, frequent diagrams, margin notes, further reading, and glossary definitions all help to enhance a student's understanding of these essential areas of chemistry. This primer provides a succinct account of the technique of X-ray crystallography for determining structure in the solid state. Engaging examples of practical applications are described throughout, emphasising the importance of this field to modern research and industry. Furthermore, end of chapter exercises and online multiple choice questions enable students to test their own understanding of the subject. Online Resource Centre The Online Resource Centre to accompany X-Ray Crystallography features: For registered adopters of the text: * Figures from the book available to download For students: * Downloadable CIF data files * Multiple-choice questions for self-directed learning * Full worked solutions to the end-of-chapter exercises
Description : The year 2012 marked the centenary of one of the most significant discoveries of the early twentieth century, the discovery of X-ray diffraction (March 1912, by Laue, Friedrich and Knipping) and of Bragg's law (November 1912). The discovery of X-ray diffraction confirmed the wave nature of X-rays and the space-lattice hypothesis. It had two major consequences: the analysis of the structure of atoms, and the determination of the atomic structure of materials. This had a momentous impact in chemistry, physics, mineralogy, material science, biology and X-ray spectroscopy. The book relates the discovery itself, the early days of X-ray crystallography, and the way the news of the discovery spread round the world. It explains how the first crystal structures were determined by William Bragg and his son Lawrence, and recounts which were the early applications of X-ray crystallography in chemistry, mineralogy, materials science, physics, biological sciences and X-ray spectroscopy. It also tells how the concept of space lattice developed since ancient times up to the nineteenth century, and how our conception of the nature of light has changed over time. The contributions of the main actors of the story, prior to the discovery, at the time of the discovery and immediately afterwards, are described through their writings and are put into the context of the time, accompanied by brief biographical details. This thoroughly researched account on the multiple faces of a scientific specialty, X-ray crystallography, is aimed both at the scientists, who rarely subject the historical material of past discoveries in their field to particular scrutiny with regard to the historical details and at the historians of science who often lack the required expert knowledge to scrutinize the involved technical content in sufficient depth (M. Eckert - Metascience).
Description : I was highly flattered when I was asked by Mark Ladd and Rex Palmer if I would write the Foreword to this Fourth Edition of their book. "Ladd & Palmer" is such a well-known and classic book on the subject of crystal structure determination, one of the standards in the field: I did feel daunted by the prospect, and wondered if I could do justice to it. The determination of crystal structures by X-ray crystallography has come a long way since the 1912 discoveries of von Laue and the Braggs. In the intervening years great advances have been made, so that today it is almost taken for granted that crystal structures can be determined in which hundreds, if not thousands, of sepa rate atomic positions can be found with apparent ease. In the early years the struc tures of relatively simple materials, such as the alkali halides, were often argued over and even disputed, whereas today we routinely see published structures of most complex molecular crystals, including the structures of viruses and proteins.
Description : Closely follows an actual structural determination. After some introductory material on the nature of x-rays, the diffraction process, and the internal geometry of crystals, the selection and preparation of a crystal are considered. Techniques of measuring raw x-ray data are covered, plus their reduction into a useable form. The second part discusses both traditional and novel methods of solving the ``phase'' problem, the principal difficulty in x-ray structure determination. The third part considers how to extract the most information from the data and how to evaluate its reliability. Finally, there is a discussion of sources of error in practice and interpretation.
Description : X-ray crystallography provides us with the most accurate picture we can get of atomic and molecular structures in crystals. It provides a hard bedrock of structural results in chemistry and in mineralogy. In biology, where the structures are not fully crystalline, it can still provide valuable results and, indeed, the impact here has been revolutionary. It is still an immense field for young workers, and no doubt will provide yet more striking developments of a major character. It does, however, require a wide range of intellectual application, and a considerable ability in many fields. This book will provide much help. It is a very straightforward and thorough guide to every aspect of the subject. The authors are ex perienced both as research workers and as teachers of standing, and this is shown in their clarity of exposition. There are plenty of illustrations and worked examples to aid the student to obtain a real grasp of the subject. The practical side is encouraged by the very clarity of the theory.
Description : Computational Studies of Crystal Structure and Bonding, by Angelo Gavezzotti Cryo-Crystallography: Diffraction at Low Temperature and More, by Piero Macchi High-Pressure Crystallography, by Malcolm I. McMahon Chemical X-Ray Photodiffraction: Principles, Examples, and Perspectives, by Panče Naumov Powder Diffraction Crystallography of Molecular Solids, by Kenneth D. M. Harris