Description : The Kurdistan Region of Iraq has been massively contaminated by landmines and unexploded ordnance. This will continue to be a major obstacle for development and economic growth, particularly in the rural border communities. The mines were used systematically by the central Baathist government in its efforts to de-populate the Kurdistan Region and to weaken the Kurds’ demands for regional self-determination. This work investigates the magnitude of the landmine problem in the region, and the landmine action activities undertaken to rehabilitate, reconstruct, and develop the region. In addition to that, this work emphasizes the social, health, educational and economic impacts of landmines, as well as the legal consequences. In order to achieve the abovementioned objectives, this work is divided into fifteen chapters. After providing an introduction and background to the landmine problem, the authors discuss the scope of the problem, both in the Kurdistan Region and internationally. The methods of dealing with mines and their consequences are reviewed. The issues of landmine action, impact surveys, factors influencing the survey process, and mine actions activities are also discussed. A comprehensive review of the outcome of the problem of landmines in the Kurdistan Region has been conducted. The nature and characteristics of the problems faced by Kurds are discussed in more detailed form by looking at case studies. Here the economic, social, and health impacts of landmines in the region are assessed. The issues of the human, security, and political impacts of landmines are further addressed, followed by an assessment of mine action resources and its progress, education, and various preventive measures. Finally, a number of policy recommendations are provided to prevent the use of mines in the future, and to take legal action against landmine users for clearance, rehabilitation, and compensation issues.
Description : The second scientific World Kurdish Congress was held in October 2012 at Hewler with the theme of improving the quality of life, science and culture for progress in Kurdistan. The papers presented focused on various important aspects of culture, economy, education, health, industry and political science in Kurdistan. The objective of this conference was to create a network of academicians to exchange and develop knowledge and work together with the Kurdistan Regional Government on how to further enhance the progress within the Kurdish society. This volume is a collection of 26 studies presented at the Congress and includes an introduction by the editors and a summary report of the Congress. The topics presented here are diverse, covering several areas pertinent to the current Kurdish situation. The studies are divided into ten areas: namely, agriculture and rural development; diaspora; education and research; health and quality of life; industry; information technology and e-government; infrastructure and development; language; human rights; and politics. In the last part of the volume, the organization committee provides a compilation of recommendations from the Congress to the Kurdistan Regional Government.
Description : The concept of human security has emerged in international relations and policy as an idea which not only seeks to relocate the focus of international society on the individual, but also challenges the current priorities of the international community. In particular it places emphasis on promoting and facilitating a nexus between security, development and human rights. It is potentially a paradigm in the making, gaining considerable momentum within the UN, international relations scholarship and regional bodies. And yet by-and-large it continues to be unexplored by the international legal community, despite the success of a number of international treaties being attributed to the discourse. This book seeks to address this gap, and establish the nature of the relationship between human security discourse and international law, determining whether human security can meaningfully contribute to the international legal framework. To determine this, the book analyses the core principles of human security discourse and examines the degree to which they find parallels in the existing normative structure of international law. The book examines the how the broad-narrow debate that dominates human security discourse has played out in international law-making. It goes on to consider the processes for the creation of so called ‘human security’ treaties in order to determine a blueprint for future development of international human security treaty law. In concluding Shireen Daft sets out a structured principled approach through which international legal scholarship can engage with human security, highlighting the ways in which engagement between the two fields can be sustained.
Description : Traditional explorations of war look through the lens of history and military science, focusing on big events, big battles, and big generals. By contrast, The SAGE Encyclopedia of War: Social Science Perspective views war through the lens of the social sciences, looking at the causes, processes and effects of war and drawing from a vast group of fields such as communication and mass media, economics, political science and law, psychology and sociology. Key features include: More than 650 entries organized in an A-to-Z format, authored and signed by key academics in the field Entries conclude with cross-references and further readings, aiding the researcher further in their research journeys An alternative Reader’s Guide table of contents groups articles by disciplinary areas and by broad themes A helpful Resource Guide directing researchers to classic books, journals and electronic resources for more in-depth study This important and distinctive work will be a key reference for all researchers in the fields of political science, international relations and sociology.
Description : Papers presented at the Expert Seminar: Gender, Violent Conflict and Development : Issues for Theory, Policy and Practice, held at Hague on October 2003.