Introduction to Single Cell Omics
  • Release Date : 19 September 2019
  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Genre : Uncategorized
  • Pages : 122 pages
  • ISBN 13 : 9782889459209
Ratings: 4
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Download or read book entitled Introduction to Single Cell Omics by author: Xinghua Pan which was release on 19 September 2019 and published by Frontiers Media SA with total page 122 pages . This book available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle Format. Single-cell omics is a progressing frontier that stems from the sequencing of the human genome and the development of omics technologies, particularly genomics, transcriptomics, epigenomics and proteomics, but the sensitivity is now improved to single-cell level. The new generation of methodologies, especially the next generation sequencing (NGS) technology, plays a leading role in genomics related fields; however, the conventional techniques of omics require number of cells to be large, usually on the order of millions of cells, which is hardly accessible in some cases. More importantly, harnessing the power of omics technologies and applying those at the single-cell level are crucial since every cell is specific and unique, and almost every cell population in every systems, derived in either vivo or in vitro, is heterogeneous. Deciphering the heterogeneity of the cell population hence becomes critical for recognizing the mechanism and significance of the system. However, without an extensive examination of individual cells, a massive analysis of cell population would only give an average output of the cells, but neglect the differences among cells. Single-cell omics seeks to study a number of individual cells in parallel for their different dimensions of molecular profile on genome-wide scale, providing unprecedented resolution for the interpretation of both the structure and function of an organ, tissue or other system, as well as the interaction (and communication) and dynamics of single cells or subpopulations of cells and their lineages. Importantly single-cell omics enables the identification of a minor subpopulation of cells that may play a critical role in biological process over a dominant subpolulation such as a cancer and a developing organ. It provides an ultra-sensitive tool for us to clarify specific molecular mechanisms and pathways and reveal the nature of cell heterogeneity. Besides, it also empowers the clinical investigation of patients when facing a very low quantity of cell available for analysis, such as noninvasive cancer screening with circulating tumor cells (CTC), noninvasive prenatal diagnostics (NIPD) and preimplantation genetic test (PGT) for in vitro fertilization. Single-cell omics greatly promotes the understanding of life at a more fundamental level, bring vast applications in medicine. Accordingly, single-cell omics is also called as single-cell analysis or single-cell biology. Within only a couple of years, single-cell omics, especially transcriptomic sequencing (scRNA-seq), whole genome and exome sequencing (scWGS, scWES), has become robust and broadly accessible. Besides the existing technologies, recently, multiplexing barcode design and combinatorial indexing technology, in combination with microfluidic platform exampled by Drop-seq, or even being independent of microfluidic platform but using a regular PCR-plate, enable us a greater capacity of single cell analysis, switching from one single cell to thousands of single cells in a single test. The unique molecular identifiers (UMIs) allow the amplification bias among the original molecules to be corrected faithfully, resulting in a reliable quantitative measurement of omics in single cells. Of late, a variety of single-cell epigenomics analyses are becoming sophisticated, particularly single cell chromatin accessibility (scATAC-seq) and CpG methylation profiling (scBS-seq, scRRBS-seq). High resolution single molecular Fluorescence in situ hybridization (smFISH) and its revolutionary versions (ex. seqFISH, MERFISH, and so on), in addition to the spatial transcriptome sequencing, make the native relationship of the individual cells of a tissue to be in 3D or 4D format visually and quantitatively clarified. On the other hand, CRISPR/cas9 editing-based In vivo lineage tracing methods enable dynamic profile of a whole developmental process to be accurately displayed. Multi-omics analysis facilitates the study of multi-dimensional regulation and relationship of different elements of the central dogma in a single cell, as well as permitting a clear dissection of the complicated omics heterogeneity of a system. Last but not the least, the technology, biological noise, sequence dropout, and batch effect bring a huge challenge to the bioinformatics of single cell omics. While significant progress in the data analysis has been made since then, revolutionary theory and algorithm logics for single cell omics are expected. Indeed, single-cell analysis exert considerable impacts on the fields of biological studies, particularly cancers, neuron and neural system, stem cells, embryo development and immune system; other than that, it also tremendously motivates pharmaceutic RD, clinical diagnosis and monitoring, as well as precision medicine. This book hereby summarizes the recent developments and general considerations of single-cell analysis, with a detailed presentation on selected technologies and applications. Starting with the experimental design on single-cell omics, the book then emphasizes the consideration on heterogeneity of cancer and other systems. It also gives an introduction of the basic methods and key facts for bioinformatics analysis. Secondary, this book provides a summary of two types of popular technologies, the fundamental tools on single-cell isolation, and the developments of single cell multi-omics, followed by descriptions of FISH technologies, though other popular technologies are not covered here due to the fact that they are intensively described here and there recently. Finally, the book illustrates an elastomer-based integrated fluidic circuit that allows a connection between single cell functional studies combining stimulation, response, imaging and measurement, and corresponding single cell sequencing. This is a model system for single cell functional genomics. In addition, it reports a pipeline for single-cell proteomics with an analysis of the early development of Xenopus embryo, a single-cell qRT-PCR application that defined the subpopulations related to cell cycling, and a new method for synergistic assembly of single cell genome with sequencing of amplification product by phi29 DNA polymerase. Due to the tremendous progresses of single-cell omics in recent years, the topics covered here are incomplete, but each individual topic is excellently addressed, significantly interesting and beneficial to scientists working in or affiliated with this field.