Description : This 2005 Article IV Consultation highlights that following three years of sluggish economic growth, activity in Guatemala improved somewhat in 2004, with real GDP rising by 2¾ percent, but consumer price inflation drifted upward to more than 9 percent. Monetary policy is being geared to reducing inflation to the 4–6 percent range. The exchange system is flexible, but the central bank has intervened in the foreign exchange in 2004 to contain the appreciation of the quetzal against the U.S. dollar. In January 2005, a rules-based mechanism for interventions was introduced.
Author by : International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
Language : en
Publisher by : International Monetary Fund
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 52
Total Download : 128
File Size : 53,8 Mb
Description : KEY ISSUES Context. Guatemala’s economy has performed solidly since the 2008–09 crisis. Output has converged to potential, inflation is under control, and macroeconomic policies remain prudent. However, risks to the outlook are tilted downwards, while buffers are modest and space for counter-cyclical policies is thin. Long-term inclusive growth is constrained by low investment in physical and human capital, institutional weaknesses, and lack of security. Near-term policies are broadly appropriate. With the output gap closed, the broadly neutral fiscal stance is adequate. The monetary stance is slightly expansionary, but inflation is at the bottom of the target range. The authorities should stand ready to tighten monetary policy if inflationary pressures re-emerge. Fiscal sustainability should be enhanced over the medium term. Though the debt-to- GDP ratio remains moderate, the ability to implement counter-cyclical fiscal policies is limited, not least by Guatemala’s high government debt-to-revenue ratio. Debt stabilization requires moderate tightening of the budgetary stance over the medium term. The emphasis should be on revenue mobilization, given the overall low level of spending. Consolidating gains from the 2012 tax reform, which has so far proved disappointing, will be critical. Efforts to upgrade the monetary and exchange policy framework should continue. Anchoring low and stable inflation will require measures to bolster monetary policy transmission, including by expanding exchange rate flexibility. This should provide an additional shock absorber and reduce incentives for dollarization. It would also establish the inflation target as the undisputed primary objective of the central bank. Further strengthening of the financial system is necessary. The 2014 FSAP update found that Guatemala has made significant progress in financial regulation and that the banking system appears to be generally sound. However, efforts are still needed to improve consolidated supervision and the regulation of off-shore banks. The time is also ripe for a phased move to Basel III standards. Structural reforms are vital to achieving long-term inclusive growth. Paving the way towards high, inclusive growth will depend upon raising the low tax-to-GDP ratio to support priority public spending, thereby addressing critical social and developmental needs.
Description : A TA Evaluation mission from the IMF Statistics Department (STA), with the support of the IMF Western Hemisphere Department (WHD), visited Guatemala City, Guatemala during May 27-June 2, 2015. The main purposes were to evaluate the effectiveness of technical assistance (TA) and training in macroeconomic statistics provided to Guatemala during 1998-2015, and to discuss with the authorities future TA priorities. The lessons learned may be useful to further enhance the effectiveness of STA’s capacity building activities. The mission worked closely with officials from the main data-producing agencies in Guatemala—the Bank of Guatemala (BG), the National Statistics Institute (NSI), and the Ministry of Public Finance (MPF).
Description : Since at least the Middle Ages, the laws of war have distinguished between combatants and civilians under an injunction now formally known as the principle of distinction. The principle of distinction is invoked in contemporary conflicts as if there were an unmistakable and sure distinction to be made between combatant and civilian. As is so brutally evident in armed conflicts, it is precisely the distinction between civilian and combatant, upon which the protection of civilians is founded, cannot be taken as self-evident or stable. Helen M. Kinsella documents that the history of international humanitarian law itself admits the difficulty of such a distinction. In The Image before the Weapon, Kinsella explores the evolution of the concept of the civilian and how it has been applied in warfare. A series of discourses—including gender, innocence, and civilization—have shaped the legal, military, and historical understandings of the civilian and she documents how these discourses converge at particular junctures to demarcate the difference between civilian and combatant. Engaging with works on the law of war from the earliest thinkers in the Western tradition, including St. Thomas Aquinas and Christine de Pisan, to contemporary figures such as James Turner Johnson and Michael Walzer, Kinsella identifies the foundational ambiguities and inconsistencies in the principle of distinction, as well as the significant role played by Christian concepts of mercy and charity. She then turns to the definition and treatment of civilians in specific armed conflicts: the American Civil War and the U.S.-Indian wars of the nineteenth century, and the civil wars of Guatemala and El Salvador in the 1980s. Finally, she analyzes the two modern treaties most influential for the principle of distinction: the 1949 IV Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Times of War and the 1977 Protocols Additional to the 1949 Conventions, which for the first time formally defined the civilian within international law. She shows how the experiences of the two world wars, but particularly World War II, and the Algerian war of independence affected these subsequent codifications of the laws of war. As recognition grows that compliance with the principle of distinction to limit violence against civilians depends on a firmer grasp of its legal, political, and historical evolution, The Image before the Weapon is a timely intervention in debates about how best to protect civilian populations.
Description : The Hogares Comunitarios Program was launched as a pilot project in Guatemala City in 1991 in response to the need for alternative childcare in a rapidly urbanizing environment. By providing working parents with lowcost, quality childcare within their communities, the program seeks to improve young children's diets, nutrition, and development, while enabling poor parents to engage in income-generating activities. Similar programs have been used throughout Latin America, but few have been carefully assessed. This report evaluates the program's implementation, its service delivery and quality, and its impact on beneficiary children and their families.
Author by : National Academy of Sciences and Committee on Health and Human Rights
Language : en
Publisher by : National Academies Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 80
Total Download : 628
File Size : 49,6 Mb
Description : Roughly 40 thousand people have been killed or made to "disappear" for political reasons in Guatemala during the last 30 years. Despite vows and some genuine efforts by the current government, human rights abuses and political killings continue. Scientists and Human Rights in Guatemala presents a history of the violence and the research findings and conclusions of a 1992 delegation to Guatemala. The focus of the book is on the human rights concerns and the responses of the government and military authorities to those concerns. Background and status of an investigation into the political murder of an eminent Guatemalan anthropologist is presented along with an overview of the impact of the repression on universities, research institutions, and service and human rights organizations.