Description : Rapid development of Earth observation satellite using remote sensing techniques enables observations of the oceanic processes by sea and airborne study to be carried out over vast areas in a short time. This first book written by Russian and Norwegian scientists is an analysis of studies of the Kara Sea and presents a unique catalogue of environmental and pollution data of the joint Norwegian and Russian oceanographic expedition studies of the Kara Sea spanning three decades.
Description : The Arctic region has long held a fascination for explorers and scientists of many countries. Despite the numerous voyages of exploration, the na ture of the central Arctic was unknown only 90 years ago; it was believed to be a shallow sea dotted with islands. During Nansen's historic voyage on the polarship Fram, which commenced in 1893, the great depth of the central basin was discovered. In the Soviet Union, investigation of the Arctic Ocean became national policy after 1917. Today research at several scientific institutions there is devoted primarily to the study of the North Polar Ocean and seas. The systematic exploration of the Arctic by the United States com menced in 1951. Research has been conducted year-round from drifting ice islands, which are tabular fragments of glacier ice that break away from ice shelves. Most frequently, ice islands originate off the northern coast of Ellesmere Island. These research platforms are occupied as weather sta tions, as well as for oceanographic and geophysical studies. Several inter national projects, conducted by Canadian, European, and U. S. groups, have been underway during the last three decades. Although much new data have accumulated since the publication of the Marine Geology and Oceanography of the Arctic Seas volume in 1974 (Yvonne Herman, ed. ), in various fields of polar research-including present-day ice cover, hydrogra phy, fauna, flora, and geology-many questions remain to be answered.
Description : This title presents the systematization and description of accumulated knowledge on oceanic fronts of the Norwegian, Greenland, Barents and Bering Seas. The main fronts of the Norwegian, Greenland and Barents Seas are part of the climatic North Polar Frontal Zone (NPFZ). The work is based on numerous observational data, collected by the authors during special sea experiments directed at the investigation of physical processes and phenomena inside certain parts of the NPFZ and in the northern part of the Bering Sea, on archive data of the USSR Hydrometeocenter and other research institutions, as well as on a wide scientific literature published in Russian and Western editions. The book contains general information on the oceanic fronts of the Subarctic Seas, brief history of their investigation, state of the knowledge, as well as detailed description of the thermohaline structure of all frontal zones in the Norwegian, Greenland, Barents and Bering Seas and of neighboring fronts of Arctic and coastal origin. Special attention is given to the study of the multifrontal character of the NPFZ and of peculiarities of its internal structure at different locations, to the description of diverse oceanic features observed in the NPFZ, as well as to some characteristics of the horizontal and vertical fine structure of hydrophysical fields in the NPFZ. The main features of the northern Bering Sea's summer ecohydrodynamics are investigated with the help of three-dimensional direct and inverse models.
Description : Polar Oceanography is an integrated synthesis of the biological, physical, geological, and chemical processes that occur in the polar oceans. The book represents the first modern interdisciplinary synthesis in this field.
Description : This volume contains 31 papers on physical and geological oceanography, marine engineering and meterology in the Japan Sea and the East China Sea. Almost all these papers were presented at the Fifth JECSS (Japan and East China Seas Study) Workshop held in Korea in 1989. Results of multinational cooperative studies carried out since the initiation of JECSS in 1981 are presented. Authors are from China, Japan, Korea, UK, USA and USSR. A wide range of subjects are covered from the viewpoint of various disciplines. The status of recent research on Asian marginal seas is outlined and points at issue are defined. An important aspect is the coverage of results from the USSR and China which are not normally easily accessible to scientists in other countries, despite the importance of this research to the international scientific community. Various subjects, from estuaries to the problems related to the whole north Pacific, are covered in this book, and it is recommended to scientists in coastal oceanography, environmental oceanography, mesoscale (synoptic scale) oceanography and large-scale oceanography.
Description : Lorsqu'il n'est pas en notre pouvoir de discerner les plus vraies opinions, nous devons suivre les plus pro babies.-Rene Descartes When, in the early 1960's I undertook to covered, due to limitations imposed by a single study Arctic Ocean deep-sea cores, I did not volume. anticipate that 10 years later the climatic history Although not comprehensive, it is hoped that of the north polar basin would be still a matter of this book will provide an insight into the current debate. Although much new data have accumu status of Arctic research and will also serve as a lated in various fields of Arct.
Description : Highlighting twenty years of U.S. scientific research conducted since the International Geophysical Year (IGY) of 1957-58, this volume marks a turning point in the history of polar investigations and provides a lucid summary of the contributions of many distinguished scientists. The authors provide an overview of major polar research programs, past and present; explore concepts derived, from highly interrelated aspects of physical and life sciences; and seek to offer a glimpse of future polar science and polar development. The introduction briefly describes major physical, biological, and interdisciplinary research programs, as well as the magnitude, extent, and international character of contemporary polar science. Twenty years of polar biological investigations are then reviewed, and subsequent chapters address principles and advances in meteorology, physical oceanography, glaciology, and the geological evidence that hears on the origin of Antarctica. These physical sciences delineate a matrix for the polar biospheres and provide a background for understanding the major categories of structure and dynamic functioning of the marine ecosystem, polar marine mammals, adaptational physiology, and terrestrial biotic adaptations.
Description : Suppose one were given the task of mapping the general circulation in an unfamiliar ocean. The ocean, like our own, is subdivided into basins and marginal seas interconnected by sea straits. Assuming a limited budget for this undertaking, one would do well to choose the straits as observational starting points. To begin with, the currents flowing from one basin to the next, over possibly wide and time-varying paths, are confined to narrow and stable routes within the straits. Mass, heat and chemical budgets for individual basins can be formulated in terms of the fluxes measured across the straits using a relatively small number of instruments. The confinement of the flow by a strait can also give rise to profound dynamical conse quences including choking or hydraulic control, a process similar to that by which a dam regulates the flow from a reservoir. The funneling geometry can lead to enhanced tidal modulation and increased velocities, giving rise to local instabilities, mixing, internal bores, jumps, and other striking hydraulic and fine scale phenomena. In short, sea straits repre sent choke points which are observationally and dynamically strategic and which contain a full range of fascinating physical processes.