Description : The Main Issues That Figure In The Very Title Of This Volume Are Indicative Of Its Scope And Contents. First, Philosophical Studies In Consciousness Have Their Persuppositions As Well As Implications. Secondly, In Order To Understant Clearly The Said Pre-Suppositions And Implications, The Intended Reader Group Needs To Tbe Introduced At Least To Some Core Concepts Of Philosophy And Science In Their Modern Sense. Thirdly, Since This Work Is Cross-Disciplinary In Its Orientation, The Conceptual Linkages Between Science And Philosophy Have Been Explored By Distinguished Philosophers And Scientists In Several Contributions To This Publication. Finally, A Conscious Attempt Has Been Made In Many Papers Of This Work That Every Branch Of Valid Knowledge, Philosophy Or Science, However Theoretically Abstract It May Be, Has Its Practical Moorings And The Same Are Temporarily Traceable. From The Available History Of Philosophy And Science It Is Found That These Disciplines Were Integrated In The Ancient Times. Differentiation Has Been Due To Endlessly Increasing Specialization Within Each Discipline. Even Today Many Philosophers And Historians Of Science Are Studying Carefully The Relation Between Different Strata Of Disciplines. The Emphasis On The Above Issues Is Intended, Among Other Things, To Avoid The Extremes Of Reductionosm, Mistakes Of Value-Fact Dualism, And To Clarify The Connection Between Theory And Practice, Experience And Experiment, Discovery And Legitimization Of Truth-Claims. In An Anthology Like This, Difference In Pre-Suppositions And Conclusions Of The Contributors, Cannot Be Ruled Out. Respect For The Freedom Of Thought, A Hallmark Of The Project, Has Been Tempered By Commitment To Reasoning. This Book, Primary Meant For Fairly Educated Readers, Is Likely To Be Of Interest To The Researchers In The Areas Of Social And Natural Science, And The Reading Public.
Description : PHILOSOPHY AND COGNITIVE SCIENCE: CATEGORIES, CONSCIOUSNESS, AND REASONING The individual man, since his separate existence is manifested only by ignorance and error, so far as he is anything apart from his fellows, and from what he and they are to be, is only a negation. Peirce, Some Consequences of Four Incapacities. 1868. For the second time the International Colloquium on Cognitive Science gathered at San Sebastian from May, 7-11, 1991 to discuss the following main topics: Knowledge of Categories Consciousness Reasoning and Interpretation Evolution, Biology, and Mind It is not an easy task to introduce in a few words the content of this volume. We have collected eleven invited papers presented at the Colloquium, which means the substantial part of it. Unfortunately, it has not been possible to include all the invited lectures of the meeting. Before sketching and showing the relevance of each paper, let us explain the reasons for having adopted the decision to organize each two years an international colloquium on Cognitive Science at Donostia (San Sebastian). First of all, Cognitive Science is a very active research area in the world, linking multidisciplinary efforts coming mostly from psychology, artificial intelligence, theoretical linguistics and neurobiology, and using more and more formal tools. We think that this new discipline lacks solid foundations, and in this sense philosophy, particularly knowledge theory, and logic must be called for.
Description : This text originates from the second of two conferences discussing the concept of consciousness. In 15 sections, this book demonstrates the broad range of fields now focusing on consciousness.
Description : There are many ways to approach the understanding of consciousness. Questions about these ways have occupied philosophers and metaphysicians for centuries. During the early growth of cognitive science the problem of consciousness remained taboo, but an increasing number of studies have either implicitly or explicitly begun to bear on its nature. These have been inspired by a number of different different original questions, and focus on a variety of different empirical phenomena. Thus, studies of implicit memory, subliminal processing, strategic versus automatic processing, allocation of attention, and differences between information processes in the awake versus dreaming state all share a common assumption of a particular quality or state -- awakeness, awareness, alertness, namely consciousness -- that somehow can be distinguished from another type of state or states in which the subject is not aware of the information being processed. What distinguishes the cognitive psychological and cognitive neuroscience approach to the question of consciousness from that of philosophy and metaphysics is scientific methodology: a set of tools that permit the empirical study of a phenomenon in an objective and reproducible way. Recent developments in both the empirical and theoretical methodologies of these fields have made it possible to begin to study the phenomenon associated with -- if not directly underlying -- consciousness in a scientific fashion. This volume tries to resolve the difficulties associated with the scientific investigation of consciousness. The intent is to explore the extent to which consciousness can be the target of direct scientific inquiry, to get on the table some of the relevant work, and consider the degree to which this research can help inform our understanding of consciousness. It brings together a group of cognitive and neuroscientists to share relevant recent research in the fields of cognitive science and neuroscience and to determine whether any new strategies for the scientific pursuit of this question can be developed. A long-term goal is the development of a unified understanding of consciousness, scientific as well as philosophical perspectives. This volume takes the first step toward building the necessary local bridges.
Description : This text is an introduction to consciousness which aims to impose structure on the relating philosophical literature. There are sections covering stream of consciousness, theoretical issues, function of consciousness, subjectivity and the explanatory gap, the knowledge argument and qualia.
Description : The problem of explaining consciousness remains a problem about the meaning of language: the ordinary language of consciousness in which we define and express our sensations, thoughts, dreams and memories. This book argues that the problem arises from a quest that has taken shape over the twentieth century, and that the analysis of history provides new resources for understanding and resolving it. Paul Livingston traces the development of the characteristic practices of analytic philosophy to problems about the relationship of experience to linguistic meaning, focusing on the theories of such philosophers as Carnap, Schlick, Neurath, Husserl, Ryle, Putnam, Fodor and Wittgenstein. Clearly written and avoiding technicalities, this book will be eagerly sought out by professionals and graduate students in philosophy and cognitive science.