Description : Proceedings of SPIE present the original research papers presented at SPIE conferences and other high-quality conferences in the broad-ranging fields of optics and photonics. These books provide prompt access to the latest innovations in research and technology in their respective fields. Proceedings of SPIE are among the most cited references in patent literature.
Description : Volume 54 of the Advances in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics Series contains ten contributions, covering a diversity of subject areas in atomic, molecular and optical physics. The article by Regal and Jin reviews the properties of a Fermi degenerate gas of cold potassium atoms in the crossover regime between the Bose-Einstein condensation of molecules and the condensation of fermionic atom pairs. The transition between the two regions can be probed by varying an external magnetic field. Sherson, Julsgaard and Polzik explore the manner in which light and atoms can be entangled, with applications to quantum information processing and communication. They report on the result of recent experiments involving the entanglement of distant objects and quantum memory of light. Recent developments in cold Rydberg atom physics are reviewed in the article by Choi, Kaufmann, Cubel-Liebisch, Reinhard, and Raithel. Fascinating experiments are described in which cold, highly excited atoms (“Rydberg atoms) and cold plasmas are generated. Evidence for a collective excitation of Rydberg matter is also presented. Griffiin and Pindzola offer an account of non-perturbative quantal methods for electron-atom scattering processes. Included in the discussion are the R-matrix with pseudo-states method and the time-dependent close-coupling method. An extensive review of the R-matrix theory of atomic, molecular, and optical processes is given by Burke, Noble, and Burke. They present a systematic development of the R-matrix method and its applications to various processes such as electron-atom scattering, atomic photoionization, electron-molecule scattering, positron-atom scattering, and atomic/molecular multiphoton processes. Electron impact excitation of rare-gas atoms from both their ground and metastable states is discussed in the article by Boffard, Jung, Anderson, and Lin. Excitation cross sections measured by the optical method are reviewed with emphasis on the physical interpretation in terms of electronic structure of the target atoms. Ozier and Moazzen-Ahmadi explore internal rotation of symmetric top molecules. Developments of new experimental methods based on high-resolution torsional, vibrational, and molecular beam spectroscopy allow accurate determination of internal barriers for these symmetric molecules. The subject of attosecond and angstrom science is reviewed by Niikura and Corkum. The underlying physical mechanisms allowing one to generate attosecond radiation pulses are described and the technology needed for the preparation of such pulses is discussed. LeGouët, Bretenaker, and Lorgeré describe how rare earth ions embedded in crystals can be used for processing optically carried broadband radio-frequency signals. Methods for reaching tens of gigahertz instantaneous bandwidth with submegahertz resolution using such devices are analyzed in detail and demonstrated experimentally. Finally, in the article by Illing, Gauthier, and Roy, it is shown that small perturbations applied to optical systems can be used to suppress or control optical chaos, spatio-temporal dynamics, and patterns. Applications of these techniques to communications, laser stabilization, and improving the sensitivity of low-light optical switches are explored. International experts Comprehensive articles New developments
Description : xiv box for Balanced Automation, research in this area is still young and emerging. In our opinion, the development of hybrid balanced solutions to cope with a variety of automation levels and manual approaches, is a much more challenging research problem than the search for a purely automatic solution. Various research activities described in this book illustrate some of these challenges through the development proposals, assisting tools, and initial results. In certain chapters however, the balancing aspects are not yet achieved in the research area, but their inclusion in this book is intended to give a broader and more comprehensive perspective of the multiple areas involved. One important aspect to be noticed is the extension and application of the concept of balanced automation to all areas of the manufacturing enterprise. Clearly, the need for a "balanced" approach is not restricted to the shop floor components, rather it applies to all other areas, as illustrated by the wide spectrum of research contributions found in this book. For instance, the need for an appropriate integration of multiple systems and their perspectives is particularly important for the implantation of virtual enterprises. Although both the BASYS'95 and the BASYS'96 conferences have provided important contributions, approaches, and tools for the implantation of balanced automation systems, there are a number of areas that require further research: .
Description : This book provides an overview of the state of the art in research and development of systems for document image analysis. Topics covered include a variety of systems and architectures for processing document images as well as methods for converting those images into formats that can be manipulated by a computer. The chapters are written by recognized experts in the field and describe Systems and Architectures, Recognition Techniques, Graphics Analysis, Document Image Retrieval, and World Wide Web Applications.
Description : Applications: - Applications of Microbial Cell Sensors, by Mifumi Shimomura-Shimizu and Isao Karube - Whole-Cell Bioreporters for the Detection of Bioavailable Metals, by Anu Hynninen and Marko Virta - Bacteriophage-Based Pathogen Detection, by Steven Ripp - Cell-Based Genotoxicity Testing, by Georg Reifferscheid and Sebastian Buchinger - Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity Reporter Systems Based on the Use of Mammalian Cells, by Christa Baumstark-Khan, Christine E. Hellweg, and Günther Reitz - Live Cell Optical Sensing for High Throughput Applications, by Ye Fang - Cyanobacterial Bioreporters as Sensors of Nutrient Availability, by George S. Bullerjahn, Ramakrishna Boyanapalli, Mark J. Rozmarynowycz, and R. Michael L. McKay - Application of Microbial Bioreporters in Environmental Microbiology and Bioremediation, by E. E. Diplock , H. A. Alhadrami , and G. I. Paton
Description : The technical committee on mechatronics formed by the International Federation for the Theory of Machines and Mechanisms, in Prague, Czech Republic, adopted the following definition for the term: Mechatronics is the synergistic combination of precision mechanical engineering, electronic control and systems thinking in the design products and manufacturing process.Due to developments in powerful computers, including microprocessors and Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICS), computational techniques, diverse technologies, advances in the design process of products and other factors, the field of mechatronics has evolved as a highly powerful and most cost effective means for product realization.