Description : Over the past two decades Vietnam has made enormous progress towards achieving universal coverage (UC) for its population. Significant challenges remain, however, in terms of improving equity with continuing low rates of enrollment. Ensuring financial protection also remains an elusive goal. The Master Plan for Universal Coverage approved in 2012 by the Prime Minister directly addresses both these deficiencies in coverage. The objective of this report is to assess the implementation of Vietnam SHI and provide options for moving towards UC. This is a joint assessment with development partners, World Health Organization, United Nations Children's Fund (Unicef) and Rockefeller Foundation. Expanding breadth of coverage, particularly for those hard to reach groups such as the near-poor and informal sector would require substantially increasing general revenue subsidies and fully subsidizing the premiums for the near-poor. High enrollment rates would, however, have little impact on financial protection and equity if OOP costs remain high. Achieving UC will require sustained efforts to improve efficiency in the system, and gain better value for money from available budgetary resources; without these efforts, any further progress towards UC would be financially unsustainable. There is considerable scope for improving efficiency in Vietnam. Fragmentation in the pooling of funds gives rise to unnecessary costs. Inefficiencies in resource allocation and purchasing arrangements include: (i) an overly generous benefits package; (ii) provider payment mechanisms and the mix of incentives facing providers which result in an oversupply of services; (iii) high prices, overconsumption and inappropriate use of pharmaceuticals; and (iv) the structure and incentives embedded within the delivery system. The organization, management and governance of SHI are fragmented and often dysfunctional. The present institutional setting for SHI needs to be assessed and changed.
Description : Over the past two decades Vietnam has made enormous progress to expand health insurance coverage to its population. Further progress will require significant additional public financing, as well as efforts improve efficiency and strengthen insurance organization and management. It contains recommendations and next steps for Vietnam to follow.
Description : Since the launch of the Ðổi Mới economic reforms in 1986, Viet Nam has achieved tremendous economic and social progress. Today, it is well integrated on global markets, has enjoyed robust growth, and has seen remarkable poverty reduction.
Description : The East Asia and Pacific Economic Update provides regular, biannual analyses of development trends and economic policy issues across the East Asia and Pacific region.
Description : This is an open access title available under the terms of a CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO licence. It is free to read at Oxford Scholarship Online and offered as a free PDF download from OUP and selected open access locations. Many developing countries-Viet Nam included-continue to struggle to raise incomes per capita. A common feature of the growth and development process is a fundamental change in the pattern of economic activity, as households reallocate labour from traditional agriculture to more productive forms of agriculture and modern industrial and service sectors. Broad structural transformation and widespread poverty reduction is the combined result of these large-scale shifts in work and labour allocation when they realise desired development goals. The roots of this volume grow from when the first pilot Viet Nam Access to Resources Household Survey (VARHS) was carried out in 2002. The success of this inspired the Central Institute of Economic Management (CIEM) in Hanoi, the Institute of Policy and Strategy for Agriculture and Rural Development (CAP-IPSARD), the Institute of Labour Science and Social Affairs (ILSSA), and the Development Economics Research Group (DERG) of the University of Copenhagen, together with Danida and later on UNU-WIDER, to plan and carry out a more ambitious VARHS from 2006, increasing coverage and representativeness to more than 2,150 families and 12 provinces across the various regions of Viet Nam. The VARHS covering these very same households had by 2014 been carried out five times, i.e. every two years. It is on this high quality panel data foundation and almost 15 years of study and policy work using the VARHS data the present volume builds, in its effort to bring out the essential rural micro-economic characteristics and insights of a dynamic South-East Asian economy in transition from a centrally planned towards a more market based economy.
Description : This volume focuses on nine countries that have completed, or are well along in the process of carrying out, major health financing reforms. These countries have significantly expanded their people's health care coverage or maintained such coverage after prolonged political or economic shocks (e.g., following the collapse ofthe Soviet Union). In doing so, this report seeks to expand the evidence base on "good performance" in health financing reforms in low- and middle-income countries. The countries chosen for the study were Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Estonia, the Kyrgyz Republic, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Tunisia, and Vietnam.
Description : Congressional Quarterly's renowned series, Congress and the Nation, is the most authoritative reference source on the actions of the U.S. Congress, providing a trusted, comprehensive, and accessible way to track legislation, debates, politics, and elections of the national government for more than three decades. Now the tenth edition continues that tradition by chronicling the events in Congress and the presidency during the second term of Bill Clinton, from his second inauguration in 1997 until leaving office in January 2001. In this new edition, readers and researchers will find: -- A survey of the politics of the period characterized by intensified partisan warfare between Clinton and the Republican Congress. -- A full description of the attempt by the GOP to impeach and remove Clinton from office that was fueled by the partisan rancor of the times. -- The remarkable agreement, in spite of the partisanship, between Clinton and his adversaries over federal spending that put the government on the road to ending chronic and massive budget deficits. -- The emerging U.S. foreign policy that sought to end the interminable ethnic fighting and civilian casualties in the Balkans. -- Continuing, and in the end fruitless, debate over the American health care system and its future. -- Details of Clinton's electoral strengths and the congressional GOP's unexpected electoral defeats. -- The disintegration of the career of House Speaker Newt Gingrich, who only a few years earlier had led his party out of electoral wilderness to capture a GOP majority for the first time in four decades. -- The unprecedented 2000 national elections in which the outcome, sending RepublicanGeorge W. Bush to the White House, was decided in the end only by a hugely controversial Supreme Court decision. As with all previous volumes, CQ editors have condensed major legislative, presidential, and political coverage into a neatly woven story of the times, giving readers both an overview of the four-year period and detailed chronologies of congressional action in substantive areas. In addition to the overall picture, this volume continues its traditional features, to include: -- Key votes cast by senators and representatives during the 105th and 106th congressional sessions -- A generous selection of presidential speeches and other texts -- An examination of controversial nominations to important government jobs that were made during the period -- A list of individuals who served in Congress during the period, and the leading Cabinet figures of Clinton's administration -- Detailed tables, election charts, and other appendices to aid fact-finding -- A detailed index and extensive cross-referencing in many articles.