Description : This book focuses on approaches to computer-assisted medical decision-making. A unique feature of the book is that a specific problem in medical decision-making has been selected from the literature, with each contributed chapter presenting a different approach to the solution of the same problem. Theoretical foundations for each approach are provided, followed by practical application. Techniques include knowledge-based reasoning, neural network models, hybrid systems, reasoning with uncertainty, and fuzzy logic, among others. The goal is to supply the reader with a variety of theoretical techniques whose practical implementation can be clearly understood through the example. Using a single, concrete example to illustrate different theoretical approaches allows various techniques to be easily contrasted and permits the reader to determine which aspects are pertinent to specific types of applications. Although the methods are illustrated in a medical problem, they have wide applicability in numerous areas of decision-making.
Description : Modern medicine is one of humankind's greatest achievements.Yet today, frequent medical errors and irreproducibility in biomedical research suggest that tremendous challenges beset it. Understanding these challenges and trying to remedy them have driven considerable and thoughtful critical analyses, but the apparent intransigence of these problems suggests a different perspective is needed. Now more than ever, when we see options and opportunities for healthcare expanding while resources are diminishing, it is extremely important that healthcare professionals practice medicine wisely. In Medical Reasoning, neurologist Erwin B. Montgomery, Jr. offers a new and vital perspective. He begins with the idea that the need for certainty in medical decision-making has been the primary driving force in medical reasoning. Doctors must routinely confront countless manifestations of symptoms, diseases, or behaviors in their patients. Therefore, either there are as many different "diseases" as there are patients or some economical set of principles and facts can be combined to explain each patient's disease. The response to this epistemic conundrum has driven medicine throughout history: the challenge is to discover principles and facts and then to develop means to apply them to each unique patient in a manner that provides certainty. This book studies the nature of medical decision making systematically and rigorously in both an analytic and historical context, addressing medicine's unique need for certainty in the face of the enormous variety of diseases and in the manifestations of the same disease in different patients. The book also examines how the social, legal, and economic circumstances in which medical decision-making occurs greatly influence the nature of medical reasoning. Medical Reasoning is essential for those at the intersection of healthcare and philosophy.
Description : The validity of certain critical reasoning steps carried out during or on the sidelines of the environmental science, public health survey, medical experiment, population risk assessment, or disease spaceOCotime mapping under conditions of in situ uncertainty and spaceOCotime heterogeneity, is often not given sufficient attention and may even be out of the investigator''s line of thought. For example, the technical complexity of an environmental exposure experiment may overshadow the logical assumptions made when moving from one phase of the experiment to the next, or the study of population risk assessment may focus on analytical and computational matters, whereas methodological and cultural factors are neglected. This book helps health investigators structure their thinking so that they avoid logical mistakes and argument pitfalls, and also gain new insights about reality, improve their awareness of the environment and context within which one''s thinking takes place. Sample Chapter(s). Chapter 1: Medical Sciences in the Age of Synthesis (439 KB). Contents: Medical Sciences in the Age of Synthesis; Reasoning Amidst Uncertainty; The Role of Probability; SpaceOCoTime Medical Mapping and Causation Modeling; Looking Ahead. Readership: Practitioners and researchers in environmental and health sciences.
Description : The Hands-on Guide to Clinical Reasoning in Medicine is the perfect companion to your time on clinical placements, providing an easy-to-read, highly visual guide to help develop your clinical decision making skills, and transfer your knowledge into practice. Packed full of useful tips, key boxes, exercises and summaries that are designed to help you apply the knowledge gained in clinical practice. Divided into the common clinical placements that you would find yourself in: Respiratory, Cardiovascular, Neurology, Geriatrics, Gastroenterology, Nephrology, Endocrinology and Rheumatology, each chapter covers the diagnosis of common clinical conditions, as well as decision-making in their investigation and management. Written for medical students in their clinical years, as well as new doctors and advanced nurse practitioners, The Hands-on Guide to Clinical Reasoning in Medicine provides students with an accessible resource for honing their clinical reasoning skills. Take the stress out of clinical decision making with The Hands-on Guide!
Description : Physicians and patients have received inaccurate medical laboratory test results that have put patients at risk. The purpose of this study is to determine the moral reasoning level of medical laboratory professionals. The theoretical framework that guided this study is grounded by the theories of cognitive development. The study used a population survey and Defining Issues Test, version 2 (DIT-2) questionnaires to collect data. Forty-seven participants from a medical laboratory were surveyed, and hypotheses were tested between moral reasoning scores (dependent variable) and age, gender, level of education, years of experience and job type (independent variables). Data were subjected to ANOVA and the results showed that laboratory professionals moral reasoning (N2=26.57, P=30.46) was lower than that of other health care professionals. Training in ethics and moral reasoning are some of the recommendations made. Moral reasoning forms the basis for ethical behavior and good decision making; this is limited in people with poor moral reasoning score, which could result in incorrect laboratory results being reported to patients and physicians. Decisions made by medical laboratory professionals affect patients treatment and care.
Description : Clinical reasoning lies at the core of health care practice and education. Clinical Reasoning in the Health Professions, therefore, occupies a central place in the education of health professionals, the enhancement of professional decision making of individuals and groups of practitioners with their clients, and research into optimal practice reasoning. All chapters updated and 20 new chapters added Concrete examples, cases and vignettes were added to bring discussions to life for the reader Reflection points strategically placed to assist readers to extend their insights and build learning from their own practical experiences and theoretical knowledge Devices of particular value to reflective practitioners and educators All chapters updated and 20 new chapters added Concrete examples, cases and vignettes were added to bring discussions to life for the reader Reflection points strategically placed to assist readers to extend their insights and build learning from their own practical experiences and theoretical knowledge Devices of particular value to reflective practitioners and educators.
Description : Clinical reasoning is the foundation of professional clinical practice. Totally revised and updated, this book continues to provide the essential text on the theoretical basis of clinical reasoning in the health professions and examines strategies for assisting learners, scholars and clinicians develop their reasoning expertise. key chapters revised and updated nature of clinical reasoning sections have been expanded increase in emphasis on collaborative reasoning core model of clinical reasoning has been revised and updated
Description : The ability to reason ethically is an extraordinarily important aspect of professionalism in any field. Indeed, the greatest challenge in ethical professional practice involves resolving the conflict that arises when the professional is required to choose between two competing ethical principles. Ethical Reasoning in the Mental Health Professions explores how to develop the ability to reason ethically in difficult situations. Other books merely present ethical and legal issues one at a time, along with case examples involving "right" and "wrong" answers. In dramatic contrast, Ethical Reasoning in the Mental Health Professions provides you with the needed background in methods of ethical reasoning and introduces an innovative nine-step model of ethical decision-making for resolving ethical dilemmas. Ethical Reasoning in the Mental Health Profession discusses the ethical codes of both psychology and counseling. This interdisciplinary approach promotes a better understanding of the similarities and differences in the points of emphasis in the two codes, which, in turn, enriches your understanding of the range of ethical considerations relevant to the practice of the mental health professions.