Description : Health is increasingly a critical concern in the context of development. This book examines the function of health systems, particularly the key factors: finance, human resources, pharmaceuticals, public facilities and stresses the importance of improving access to health services in developing countries.
Description : This book focuses on the adoption of medical technology in the developing world, and the role that can be played by new biomaterials. These authors urge that advanced technology be aligned with the needs of developing and emerging markets, and an alternative definition of technology be embraced. This “new technology” considers natural sources of materials and tools for treatment and is not restricted to the usual traditional computerized or electronic technology. This book explores the difficulties that accompany successful transfer of technologies between disparate settings. The book then leaves the world of traditional technology and focuses on biomaterials, which represent an enormous opportunity for developing societies to become active participants in the development of new technologies. Biomaterials can be used in the treatment of disease throughout the developing world and beyond. Biomaterials encompass a range of naturally derived substances; of particular interest here are naturally derived and synthetically manufactured materials with potential applications in different body systems. Because many of these materials can be grown, the agricultural output of developing nations is an obvious potential source of these biomaterials. The book considers the cases of Ghana and Nicaragua as examples of the broader situation in West Africa and Central/South America. These two regions are uniquely positioned with regard to both health care and technological capabilities, and both stand to grow significantly in the coming years. While the agricultural sectors of the two nations are quite different, both are major producers of corn and other materials that should be investigated further. Of course, the difficulty in using a foodstuff for medical purposes is fully explored.
Description : Protection of intellectual property rights (IPRs) has become a global issue. The Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property (TRIPS) Agreement outlines the minimum standards for IPR protection for WTO members and offers a global regime for IPR protection. However, the benefits of TRIPS are more questionable in poorer countries where national infrastructure for research and development (R&D) and social protection are inadequate, whereas the cost of innovation is high. Today, after more than a decade of intense debate over global IPR protection, the problems remain acute, although there is also evidence of progress and cooperation. This book examines various views of the role of IPRs as incentives for innovation against the backdrop of development and the transfer of technology between globalised, knowledge-based, high technology economies. The book retraces the origins, content and interpretations of the TRIPS Agreement, including its interpretations by WTO dispute settlement organs. It also analyses sources of controversy over IPRs, examining pharmaceutical industry strategies of emerging countries with different IPR policies. The continuing international debate over IPRs is examined in depth, as are TRIPS rules and the controversy about implementing the 'flexibilities' of the Agreement in the light of national policy objectives. The author concludes that for governments in developing countries, as well as for their business and scientific communities, a great deal depends on domestic policy objectives and their implementation. IPR protection should be supporting domestic policies for innovation and investment. This, in turn requires a re-casting of the debate about TRIPS, to place cooperation in global and efficient R&D at the heart of concerns over IPR protection.
Description : The purpose of this book is to fill the lack of micro evidences on a structural change of African producers. By collecting studies on single industries, we attempt to demonstrate firms' and farmers' responses to the recent economic trend such as growth of demand, emergence of FDI and improvement in infrastructure.
Description : An in-depth analysis of the fundamental role that decentralization plays in developing countries, using detailed statistical data to examine the actual fiscal structure between tiers of government, and the effects of decentralization at the local, national and international levels.
Description : This book observes that an in-depth study exclusively focusing on health service trade not only strengthens the overall services trade capacity of the South Asian region, but also promotes global as well as regional trade. There is a dearth of analytical research on estimating barriers to trade in health services, particularly in the context of South Asia, and as such, this book assesses the potential benefits and economic costs of barriers to trade in health services in select South Asian economies. It also analyzes the impact of liberalization and regulatory reforms on economic welfare. It broadly addresses issues relating to trade in health services, the GATS (General Agreement on Trade in Services), such as: Why are the current levels of trade in health services low? How will the GATS legally affect a country’s health policy? What effect might liberalization have on national health systems? And what are the likely benefits of greater trade in health services? It also provides specific answers to the following questions: Does the substantial role of the government in health – as health service provider, financial supporter, regulator and promoter – have implications for the treatment of the sector under the GATS? What is the impact of liberalization of international trade in health services on the quality and availability of health services in developing SAARC countries? Given the importance of consumption abroad for trade in health services, and the gradual opening of health markets through Modes 1 and 3 (cross-border supply and commercial presence), how can problems associated with trade in these Modes be prevented? And are these problems sufficiently addressed by GATS disciplines? Answers to these questions will be of great use to researchers, policy makers as well as practitioners and NGOs of South Asia.
Description : A comprehensive picture of the effects of economic integration on industry location in less developed East Asia - particularly in Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and Myanmar - who pursued trade liberalization and economic integration after the 1990s. Studies include detailed empirical analyses of regional industry locations as well as country overviews.
Description : This publication examines how public spending on health care can be made more efficient and equitable in developing countries, focusing on strategic purchasing and contracting of services from non-governmental providers. It is divided into six sections under the headings of: the conceptual framework; how to make strategic purchasing pro-poor; purchasing health services; purchasing inputs; supply, demand and markets; legal and regulatory issues.
Description : This study sought to identify the major barriers to health service access for a special section of the Kenya community, namely, a rural community in a semi-arid environment, using Marigat Division of Baringo District within the Rift Valley as an example. Such environments are characterized by harsh weather conditions, sparsely distributed small settlements, poor road and other communication networks and low economic levels. The study used both primary and secondary socio-economic data, including health service attendance patterns, population and disease incidence distributions, as well as bio-physical data such as topography, weather and road networks to analyze health attendance patterns.
Description : Cities are now home to nearly half of the world's population, and the issue of sustainable development is one of the most pressing challenges facing the international community in the 21st century. This publication is the first in-depth attempt to monitor and analyse the realities faced by urban populations around the world. It explores a range of issues, trends and policy responses in five major areas relating to: shelter, society, environment, economy and governance. It introduces the 'City Development Index', which has been developed by the UN Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat). Over time, this should become a standard monitoring tool used to track regional, national and city level progress towards implementing the Habitat Agenda. The report concludes that local democracy is a key factor for the future of all cities.