Description : This guide to the story of light in which photography of original equipment, intricate scientific instruments, revealing experiments and 3-D models offer a unique view to the incredible discoveries that have transformed our world. See why ancient peoples worshipped the Sun as a God; how light rays bend; why things glow when they are very hot; what creates a colour television picture; how microscopes and telescopes were invented; why a leaf looks green; how fibre optics can transmit light; what happens during an eclipse; why images are reversed in mirrors; how a liquid crystal display works; what makes a hologram; what causes the eerie will o the wisp; how do some animals make their own light; what creates a mirage; why we burn in strong sunlight; what a polarising filter does; why we see rainbows; what a quantum is and how X-rays penetrate our bodies.
Description : This shimmering short novel gives an extraordinary portrait of a day in the life of an artist at work and at home. In prose as luminous as the colors Monet used to portray his beloved garden, Eva Figes guides us through Giverny. We get to know Monet’s family—including his daughter Germaine who frets that she will not be able to marry the man she loves and his wife who greaves for a departed child—as well as the family’s friend, the abbé, who eats and drinks with them, observing the essential faith of the painter’s art. All of the characters experience, in very different ways, the richness of the light that Monet works unceasingly to pin down in his last great paintings.
Description : This book describes the principles of operation of each type of microscope currently available and of use to biomedical and materials scientists. It explains the mechanisms of image formation, contrast and its enhancement, and accounts for ultimate limits on the size of observable details (resolving power and resolution). Finally it provides an account of Fourier optical theory. Principles behind the photographic methods used in microscopy are also described and there is some discussion of image processing methods. Throughout, the text emphasizes the underlying similarity of all microscope systems and, recognizing that biologists may often be uncomfortable with mathematical approaches every effort has been made to present concepts verbally.
Description : The dialectic of light and darkness studied in this collection of essays reveals itself as a primal factor of life as well as the essential element of the specifically human world. From its borderline position between physis and psyche, natural growth and techne, bios and ethos, it functions as the essential factor in all the sectors of life at large. We see its crucial role in all sectors of life while, prompted by man's creative imagination, it enhances and spurs his vital as well as societal and spiritual life. This rare collection contains studies by Thomas Ryba, Krystina Górniak-Kocikowska, Lois Oppenheim, Sydney Feshback, Eldon van Lieve, Sitansu Ray, Theodore Litman, Peter Morgan, Colette Michael, Christopher Lalonde, L. Findlay, Christopher Eykman, Beverly Schlack Randles, Jorge García-Gómez, William Haney, Sherilyn Abdoo, David Brottman, Alan Pratt, Hans Rudnick, George Scheper, Freema Gottlieb, Marlies Kronegger.
Description : This book provides a detailed description of light absorption and absorbents in seawaters with respect to provenance, region of the sea, depth of the occurrence and trophicity. The text is based on a substantial body of contemporary research results taken from the subject literature (over 400 references) and the work of the authors over a period of 30 years.
Description : This fourth volume of Light Scattering Reviews is composed of three parts. The ?rstpartisconcernedwiththeoreticalandexperimentalstudiesofsinglelightsc- tering by small nonspherical particles. Light scattering by small particles such as, for instance, droplets in the terrestrial clouds is a well understood area of physical optics. On the other hand, exact theoretical calculations of light scattering p- terns for most of nonspherical and irregularly shaped particles can be performed only for the restricted values of the size parameter, which is proportional to the ratio of the characteristic size of the particle to the wavelength?. For the large nonspherical particles, approximations are used (e. g. , ray optics). The exact th- retical techniques such as the T-matrix method cannot be used for extremely large particles, such as those in ice clouds, because then the size parameter in the v- iblex=2?a/???,wherea is the characteristic size (radius for spheres), and the associated numerical codes become unstable and produce wrong answers. Yet another problem is due to the fact that particles in many turbid media (e. g. , dust clouds) cannot be characterized by a single shape. Often, refractive indices also vary. Because of problems with theoretical calculations, experimental (i. e. , la- ratory) investigations are important for the characterization and understanding of the optical properties of such types of particles. The ?rst paper in this volume, written by B. Gustafson, is aimed at the descr- tionofscaledanalogueexperimentsinelectromagneticscattering.
Description : Polarized Light, Second Edition explores polarized light, its production, and its use, facilitating self-study without prior knowledge of Maxwell's equations. This comprehensive second edition includes more than 2500 thoroughly updated figures and equations for easier understanding and application across various industries. It features new chapters on polarization by refraction and reflection, polarization elements, anisotropic materials, Stokes polarimetry, Mueller matrix polarimetry, the mathematics of the Mueller matrix. This edition also offers updated and expanded material on the derivation of the Fresnel equations with plots of the magnitude and phase of the reflection coefficients.
Description : The production of environmentally friendly, sustainable, chemical-free food continues to challenge the food industry, spurring on investigations into alternative food processing techniques that are more sophisticated and diverse than current practices. Exploring one of these emerging solutions, Ultraviolet Light in Food Technology: Principles and Applications incorporates the fundamentals of continuous and pulsed UV light generation and propagation; current food regulations; recommendations for optimal UV reactor design, selection, and validation; information on both commercially available and under-development UV sources; and the outlook for future food applications. After reviewing essential terms, definitions, and current applications, the book emphasizes the need to properly assess the physical and chemical properties in foods that influence the effectiveness of UV treatment and impact inactivation kinetics. It also addresses the effects of UV processing on food quality, before considering the engineering aspects of UV light treatment, such as transport phenomena, process calculations, and continuous-flow reactor geometries. The book then describes the principles of validating UV reactors as well as the principles and applications of UV pulsed light, including microbial inactivation in water, meat, fruits, vegetables, and packaging materials. For anyone working in food research, development, and operations, this resource provides broad, accessible information on the science and applications of UV light technology. It shows how UV light irradiation can be used as a physical preservation method in food processing.