Description : Dolpo is a culturally Tibetan enclave in one of Nepal's most remote regions. The Dolpo-pa, or people of Dolpo, share language, religious and cultural practices, history, and a way of life. Agro-pastoralists who live in some of the highest villages in the world, the Dolpo-pa wrest survival from this inhospitable landscape through a creative combination of farming, animal husbandry, and trade. High Frontiers is an ethnography and ecological history of Dolpo tracing the dramatic transformations in the region's socioeconomic patterns. Once these traders passed freely between Tibet and Nepal with their caravans of yak to exchange salt and grains; they relied on winter pastures in Tibet to maintain their herds. After 1959, China assumed full control over Tibet and the border was closed, restricting livestock migrations and sharply curtailing trade. At the same time, increasing supplies of Indian salt reduced the value of Tibetan salt, undermining Dolpo's economic niche. Dolpo's agro-pastoralists were forced to reinvent their lives by changing their migration patterns, adopting new economic partnerships, and adapting to external agents of change. The region has been transformed as a result of the creation of Nepal's largest national park, the making of Himalaya, a major motion picture filmed on location, the increasing presence of nongovernmental organizations, and a booming trade in medicinal products. High Frontiers examines these transformations at the local level and speculates on the future of pastoralism in this region and across the Himalayas.
Description : The role of high pressure experiments in the discovery of supercon ducting materials with a T. above liquid nitrogen temperature has demon strated the importance of such experiments. The same role holds true in the tailoring of materials for optoelectronic devices. In addition, much progress has been made recently in the search for metallic hydro gen, and the application of high pressure in polymer research has brought forth interesting results. These facts together with the suc cess of previous small size meetings (such as the "First International Conference on the Physics of Solids at High Pressure", held in 1965 in Tucson, Arizona, U. S. A. ; "High Pressure and Low Temperature Physics", held in 1977 in Cleveland, Ohio, U. S. A. ; and "Physics of Solids Under High Pressure", held in 1981 in bad Honnef, Germany), motivated us to organize a workshop with emphasis on the newest results and trends in these fields of high pressure research. Furthermore, it was intended to mix experienced and young scien tists to realize an idea best expressed in a letter by Prof. Weinstein: "I think it is an excellent idea. I have often felt that the number of excellent young researchers in the high pressure field need an opportu nity to put forward their work with due recognition. " Thanks to the support of the key speakers, we were able to achieve this goal and had more than 50\ young participants.
Description : Recent scientific and technical advances have made it possible to create matter in the laboratory under conditions relevant to astrophysical systems such as supernovae and black holes. These advances will also benefit inertial confinement fusion research and the nationâ€™s nuclear weaponâ€™s program. The report describes the major research facilities on which such high energy density conditions can be achieved and lists a number of key scientific questions about high energy density physics that can be addressed by this research. Several recommendations are presented that would facilitate the development of a comprehensive strategy for realizing these research opportunities.
Description : In recent interactions with industrial companies it became quite obvious, that the search for new materials with strong anisotropic properties are of paramount importance for the development of new advanced electronic and magnetic devices. The questions concerning the tailoring of materials with large anisotropic electrical and thermal conductivity were asked over and over again. It became also quite clear that the chance to answer these questions and to find new materials which have these desired properties would demand close collaborations between scientists from different fields. Modem techniques ofcontrolled materials synthesis and advances in measurement and modeling have made clear that multiscale complexity is intrinsic to complex electronic materials, both organic and inorganic. A unified approach to classes of these materials is urgently needed, requiring interdisciplinary input from chemistry, materials science, and solid state physics. Only in this way can they be controlled and exploited for increasingly stringent demands oftechnology. The spatial and temporal complexity is driven by strong, often competing couplings between spin, charge and lattice degrees offreedom, which determine structure-function relationships. The nature of these couplings is a sensitive function of electron-electron, electron-lattice, and spin-lattice interactions; noise and disorder, external fields (magnetic, optical, pressure, etc. ), and dimensionality. In particular, these physical influences control broken-symmetry ground states (charge and spin ordered, ferroelectric, superconducting), metal-insulator transitions, and excitations with respect to broken-symmetries created by chemical- or photo-doping, especially in the form of polaronic or excitonic self-trapping.
Description : This book constitutes the refereed joint proceedings of ten international workshops held in conjunction with the 4th International Symposium on Parallel and Distributed Processing and Applications, ISPA 2006, held in Sorrento, Italy in December 2006. It contains 116 papers that contribute to enlarging the spectrum of the more general topics treated in the ISPA 2006 main conference.
Description : This is the first book covering all aspects of high pressure biochemistry and biophysics of proteins. Hydrostatic pressure is a powerful tool for study of biological systems. As a thermodynamic parameter, hydrostatic pressure has been known for a century to act on biological materials in a similar, but not identical, way to temperature. However, pressure was disregarded for a long time by biochemists mainly because the basic concepts (and the thermodynamics) focused on the chemical reactions involved and because general ideas on what pressure can add to the understanding of the behaviour of proteins were lacking. In recent decades, technological progress in the field of physics has shown, along with parameters such as temperature and solvent conditions, that pressure can be used for more refined thermodynamic and kinetic descriptions of biological processes and regulation of biological systems. The effects of pressure on proteins, nucleoproteins and membranes have recently been reviewed and several proceedings books have been published.
Description : This book constitutes the refereed joint proceedings of seven international workshops held in conjunction with the 5th International Symposium on Parallel and Distributed Processing and Applications, ISPA 2007, held in Niagara Falls, Canada in August 2007. The 53 revised full papers presented were carefully selected from many high quality submissions. The workshops contribute to enlarging the spectrum of the more general topics treated in the ISPA 2007 main conference.
Description : This volume is a transcription of Grand Rounds lectures 1998, conducted by the leading researchers and clinicians in biomedicine. This book contains chapters from stellar representatives of all the major fields of current medical research who give their best sense of how their work and the work of their colleagues will affect both current and future treatment of disease as we enter the 21st century.