George Washington And Slavery

George Washington And Slavery

Author by : Fritz Hirschfeld
Language : en
Publisher by : University of Missouri Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 63
Total Download : 912
File Size : 54,5 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : Because General Washington - the universally acknowledged hero of the Revolutionary War - in the postwar period uniquely combined the moral authority, personal prestige, and political power to influence significantly the course and the outcome of the slavery debate, his opinions on the subject of slaves and slavery are of crucial importance to understanding how racism succeeded in becoming an integral and official part of the national fabric during its formative stages.


Slavery At The Home Of George Washington

Slavery At The Home Of George Washington

Author by : Philip J. Schwarz
Language : en
Publisher by : Mount Vernon Ladies Assn of the
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 57
Total Download : 246
File Size : 40,8 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : George Washington inherited his first slave at the age of eleven, and he was the only founding father to free his slaves in his will. This highly readable selection of articles focuses on Washington's changing attitudes toward the institution of slavery and his everyday relationships with the slaves who shared his Mount Vernon estate. Along with his insightful introduction, editor Philip J. Schwarz has included James C. Rees's essay "Looking Back, Moving Forward: The Changing Interpretation of Slave Life on the Mount Vernon Estate," Dennis J. Pogue's essay "Slave Lifeways at Mount Vernon: An Archaeological Perspective," and Lorena S. Walsh's essay "Slavery and Agriculture at Mount Vernon," as well as essays by Jean B. Lee, Mary V. Thompson, and Edna Greene Medford.


The Only Unavoidable Subject Of Regret

 The Only Unavoidable Subject Of Regret

Author by : Mary V. Thompson
Language : en
Publisher by :
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 93
Total Download : 391
File Size : 54,5 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : "American historians began producing in-depth studies of slavery and slave life shortly after World War II, but it was not until the early 1980s that the country's museums took the first tentative steps to interpret those same controversial topics. Perhaps because of the tremendous amount of primary material related to George Washington, almost no one looked into the lives of Mount Vernon's enslaved population. Incorporating the results of detailed digging, of both the archaeological and archival varieties, the number of chapters grew as further questions arose. While a few scholars outside Mount Vernon turned their attention to Washington's changing ideas about slavery, they largely overlooked the daily lives of those who were enslaved on the estate, a subject about which visitors expressed a desire to know more. The resulting book makes use of a wide range of sources, including letters, financial ledgers, work reports, travel diaries kept by visitors to Mount Vernon, the reminiscences of family members, former slaves, and neighbors, reports by archaeologists, and surviving artifacts to flesh out the lives of a people who left few written records, but made up 90 percent of the estate's population. The book begins with a look at George and Martha Washington as slaveowners, before turning to various facets of slave life ranging from work, to family life, housing, foodways, private enterprise, and resistance. Along the way, readers will see a relationship between Washington's military career and his style of plantation management, learn of the many ways slaves rebelled against their condition, and get to know many of the enslaved people who made Mount Vernon their home"--


Lives Bound Together

Lives Bound Together

Author by : Jessie MacLeod
Language : en
Publisher by :
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 29
Total Download : 972
File Size : 44,6 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : At the time of George Washington's death in 1799, more than 300 enslaved men, women, and children lived on his Mount Vernon plantation. Lives Bound Together: Slavery at George Washington's Mount Vernon, published to accompany a 2016-2018 exhibition, explores this important example of eighteenth-century slavery through brief biographies of 19 enslaved individuals, 10 essays, and 130 illustrations (including paintings, prints, objects, buildings, landscapes, documents, charts, maps, and conjectural silhouettes that suggest the presence of the enslaved). The text illuminates three key themes: first, the lives, families, and experiences of the enslaved people of Mount Vernon; second, Washington's changing views on slavery, culminating in his pioneering action to free his slaves per the terms of his will; and third, the extent to which his public career and his family's lives were inextricably entwined with the labor of Mount Vernon's enslaved people. The biographies represent a range of experiences, including men and women; natives of Africa and the Virginia Tidewater; field-workers, artisans, and domestic laborers; some who escaped and some who were recaptured and sold as punishment; some who died in slavery and some who became free. Compiled by Mount Vernon Associate Curator Jessie MacLeod, these biographies draw upon documentary references, from Washington's diaries, letters, account books, invoices, farm managers' reports, visitor descriptions, and public records, supplemented by archaeology and oral histories. The essays provide a broader context for understanding the individual life stories, focusing on George Washington's changing attitude toward slavery; the resistance actions of the enslaved; the nineteenth-century history of slavery at Mount Vernon and images created by nineteenth-century artists; the kinds of evidence found in documents, databases, archaeology, and landscapes; and personal reflections by members of families descended from individuals enslaved at Mount Vernon. Harvard law professor and historian Annette Gordon Reed contributes the introduction; an appendix presents a timeline linking key events in the lives of people enslaved at Mount Vernon with George Washington's public and private actions relating to slavery as well as landmark events of national history. Detailed reference notes and suggestions for further readings complete the work.


An Imperfect God

An Imperfect God

Author by : Henry Wiencek
Language : en
Publisher by : Farrar, Straus and Giroux
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 41
Total Download : 486
File Size : 43,7 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : An Imperfect God is a major new biography of Washington, and the first to explore his engagement with American slavery When George Washington wrote his will, he made the startling decision to set his slaves free; earlier he had said that holding slaves was his "only unavoidable subject of regret." In this groundbreaking work, Henry Wiencek explores the founding father's engagement with slavery at every stage of his life--as a Virginia planter, soldier, politician, president and statesman. Washington was born and raised among blacks and mixed-race people; he and his wife had blood ties to the slave community. Yet as a young man he bought and sold slaves without scruple, even raffled off children to collect debts (an incident ignored by earlier biographers). Then, on the Revolutionary battlefields where he commanded both black and white troops, Washington's attitudes began to change. He and the other framers enshrined slavery in the Constitution, but, Wiencek shows, even before he became president Washington had begun to see the system's evil. Wiencek's revelatory narrative, based on a meticulous examination of private papers, court records, and the voluminous Washington archives, documents for the first time the moral transformation culminating in Washington's determination to emancipate his slaves. He acted too late to keep the new republic from perpetuating slavery, but his repentance was genuine. And it was perhaps related to the possibility--as the oral history of Mount Vernon's slave descendants has long asserted--that a slave named West Ford was the son of George and a woman named Venus; Wiencek has new evidence that this could indeed have been true. George Washington's heroic stature as Father of Our Country is not diminished in this superb, nuanced portrait: now we see Washington in full as a man of his time and ahead of his time.


The Ballad Of Billy Lee

The Ballad Of Billy Lee

Author by : Len Lamensdorf
Language : en
Publisher by :
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 95
Total Download : 130
File Size : 54,6 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : Billy Lee, an African-American slave, was at George Washington's side for over 30 years. Though never a relationship between equals, it was an intimate and enduring connection. A superb horseman, bold soldier and literate aide, Billy stood next to Washington when he crossed the Delaware, galloped at Washington's side when they rode into battle, a slave. armed with a pistol, a carbine and a spyglass--served with him at Valley Forge and through the diificult years until final victory at Yorktown. He was responsible for Washington's public and private papers at congresses and conventions, but Billy was a slave, yearning to be free, and his slavery cost him the love of his life.


A Companion To George Washington

A Companion To George Washington

Author by : Edward G. Lengel
Language : en
Publisher by : John Wiley & Sons
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 33
Total Download : 382
File Size : 54,7 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : Utilizing new primary source material from the Papers of GeorgeWashington, a documentary editing project dedicated to thetranscription and publication of original documents, A Companionto George Washington features a collection of original readingsfrom scholars and popular historians that shed new light on allaspects of the life of George Washington. Provides readers with new insights into previously neglectedaspects of Washington's life Features original essays from top scholars and popularhistorians Based on new research from thousands of previously unpublishedletters to and from Washington


Washington S Decision

Washington S Decision

Author by : Patrick Charles
Language : en
Publisher by : Booksurge Llc
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 68
Total Download : 462
File Size : 41,7 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : On December 31, 1775, George Washington sent an important letter to the Continental Congress regarding the enlistment of black soldiers in the Continental Army. Washington had made the decision, once again, to allow free blacks to enlist pending Congressional approval. In the spring of 1775, blacks serving in the Continental Army and state militias were common, but orders issued by Washington, Continental recruiting officers, and legislation passed by Congress decided not to accept blacks as a means of meeting their troop quotas. Washington's decision to reject, then reaccept, black enlistments has been viewed by historians differently. Different reasons have been given for Washington's change of heart on December 31, but the same limited evidence has been used to support the differing theories. None of these historians have truly examined the evidence thoroughly enough to interpret Washington's decision. Some historians believe Lord Dunmore's proclamation influenced George Washington to reaccept black enlistments. Only by examining the full story, can it be seen that Washington was influenced by this and personal factors. There are three themes regarding Washington's decision to reaccept black enlistments. The first is that Washington made this decision due to the deteriorating state of army. It is argued that the army's personnel shortage caused Washington and later Congress to enlist black soldiers to solve their problem of meeting troop quotas. This theory is acceptable to the average American who learned about the American Revolution, but is not completely accurate. It is well known that the Continental Army was not a formidable fighting force in 1775, especially when compared to the British, the strongest standing army in the world at that time. Thus, proponents of this theory believe Washington needed every man who would serve the Revolutionary cause. Although this theory seems to help explain Washington's decision, it neither gives us the whole story nor was it the most influential factor.Another theory contends that Washington made his decision to reaccept black enlistments because he sympathized with the black soldiers who were already serving in his army. This argument has been made by Henry Wiencek, author of An Imperfect God, and implied by Benjamin Quarles, author of The Negro in the American Revolution. Although Congress, Washington, and the recruiting officers had decided not to allow any more blacks to enlist or reenlist before December, there were black soldiers who were finishing their terms of enlistment in Washington's camp. According to this theory, Washington's contact with these remaining black troops changed his mind. The daily exposure to the black soldiers caused him to sympathize with their desire to fight in the cause of liberty. Thus, Washington felt morally obligated to act on their behalf. This theory looks upon Washington the most positively, but ignores many pertinent facts about Washington. There is little doubt that this helps to partially explain Washington's decision, but does not tell the whole story. The phrase, "it has been represented to me that the free Negroes who have served in this army are very much dissatisfied at being discarded," in his letter on December 31, is the main evidence supporting the theory. Supporters also point to Washington's internal struggle over the issue of slavery as proof. Washington's letter requesting the reacceptance of black enlistments was written after months of frustration over many issues. What he wrote to Congress, was not necessarily what he thought. Especially since Washington's letters to Congress had always been written in a manner to persuade them to give in to his requests. Also, Washington's doubts regarding slavery did not develop until near the end of the Revolutionary War. Before the war, and for much of its course, he was a staunch supporter of slavery. He did not rethink the issue until he realized the dilemma the colonists were facing against the mother country, resembled slaves' struggle for freedom. During his presidency, this became an issue which he would contemplate often. The last theory is that Washington changed his mind in allowing free blacks to serve in reaction to Lord Dunmore's Proclamation. Some theorize that this prompted Washington and Congress to act in order to counter the effects of Dunmore's Proclamation. Proponents of this theory are correct that Lord Dunmore's Proclamation influenced Washington's decision, but have stated it incorrectly. These supporters have not fully examined the events that took place leading up to Washington writing the letter. Historians have used the same limited, and in many cases inaccurate, evidence in supporting this claim, thus, leaving the reader to make assumptions to complete the story. In order to understand what influenced Washington, the story must be told in its entirety. That requires consideration of the background and politics of black soldiers serving, Lord Dunmore and the effects of his proclamation on society, Congressional reaction to Dunmore's proclamation, George Washington's involvement with black enlistments, Washington's relationship with Lord Dunmore, and Washington's knowledge of the state of the army.


Never Caught The Story Of Ona Judge

Never Caught The Story Of Ona Judge

Author by : Erica Armstrong Dunbar
Language : en
Publisher by : Aladdin
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 94
Total Download : 206
File Size : 51,7 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : “A brilliant work of US history.” —School Library Journal (starred review) “Gripping.” —BCCB (starred review) “Accessible…Necessary.” —Kirkus Reviews (starred review) A National Book Award Finalist for Nonfiction, Never Caught is the eye-opening narrative of Ona Judge, George and Martha Washington’s runaway slave, who risked everything for a better life—now available as a young reader’s edition! In this incredible narrative, Erica Armstrong Dunbar reveals a fascinating and heartbreaking behind-the-scenes look at the Washingtons when they were the First Family—and an in-depth look at their slave, Ona Judge, who dared to escape from one of the nation’s Founding Fathers. Born into a life of slavery, Ona Judge eventually grew up to be George and Martha Washington’s “favored” dower slave. When she was told that she was going to be given as a wedding gift to Martha Washington’s granddaughter, Ona made the bold and brave decision to flee to the north, where she would be a fugitive. From her childhood, to her time with the Washingtons and living in the slave quarters, to her escape to New Hampshire, Erica Armstrong Dunbar, along with Kathleen Van Cleve, shares an intimate glimpse into the life of a little-known, but powerful figure in history, and her brave journey as she fled the most powerful couple in the country.


Taking Liberty

Taking Liberty

Author by : Ann Rinaldi
Language : en
Publisher by : Simon and Schuster
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 65
Total Download : 581
File Size : 45,9 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : When I was four and my daddy left, I cried, but I understood. He had become part of the Gone. Oney Judge is a slave. But on the plantation of Mount Vernon, the beautiful home of George and Martha Washington, she is not called a slave. She is referred to as a servant, and a house servant at that -- a position of influence and respect. When she rises to the position of personal servant to Martha Washington, her status among the household staff -- black or white -- is second to none. She is Lady Washington's closest confidante and for all intents and purposes, a member of the family -- or so she thinks. Slowly, Oney's perception of her life with the Washingtons begins to crack as she realizes the truth: No matter what it's called, it's still slavery and she's still a slave. Oney must make a choice. Does she stay where she is -- comfortable, with this family that has loved her and nourished her and owned her since the day she was born? Or does she take her liberty -- her life -- into her own hands, and like her father, become one of the Gone? Told with immense power and compassion, Taking Liberty is the extraordinary true story of one young woman's struggle to take what is rightfully hers.