Description : This report discusses several different approaches that support reforming health care services in developing countries. For some time now, health care services have been supported by government funds. As demands for improving health care services continue to increase additional demands will be placed on governments to respond. This, however, will not be easy. Slow economic growth and record budget deficits in the 1980's have forced reductions in public spending. Alternative approaches to finance health care services are needed. Such possible changes could involve: decentralization of federal government involvement; the promotion of nongovernment involvement; the imposition of user fees; and, establishing health insurance. Finally, the role of the Bank in pursuing new financing strategies is discussed.
Description : This book suggests options and provides examples of ways in which health care can be financed; to help readers think about what is best for their particular working situation, rather than to suggest definitive solutions. Intended for managers, health workers and members of the community who are involved with non-governmental health programmes.
Description : World Bank Discussion Paper No. 308. A major obstacle in creating secure banks in transitional economies is the absence of political will and the lack of traditions and techniques for governing and regulating financial intermediaries. This paper provides a comprehensive, annotated model contract for policymakers and bank executives to help them discipline troubled banks.
Description : World Bank Technical Paper No. 258. Quality of health care is a complex concept interwoven with value judgments about what constitutes good quality. This lack of linearity partly explains the large number of definitions of the concept of quality an
Description : Spanish edition. World Bank Technical Paper No. 345S. This report examines specific policies for achieving sustainable development of the mining industry in the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. The report highlights the importance of the mining sector to national economies of the region and discusses World Bank assistance in formulating policy. Also available in English: (ISBN 0-8213-3816-1) Stock no. 13816.
Description : This paper discusses the nature of private sector involvement in health service delivery in developing countries, the potential for expanding it, and areas where health sector policy goals might benefit from greater private participation. It takes the wide and rarely occupied middle ground between the extreme pro-public and pro-private approaches to health care delivery. A simple distinction between the private and public sectors is applied -- anything not done by the government itself is treated as part of the private sector. The area of greatest potential for private sector involvement in developing countries is in hospital care. It would require, however, the development of third party payment systems and a re-evaluation in areas where governments are most heavily involved. This would allow governments to retreat to the simpler and more appropriate tasks of financing and regulating health service delivery. Governments probably cannot extract themselves completely form direct provision of curative care, especially in rural areas. Greater reliance on the private sector to supply remaining government facilities, however can stimulate the development of more diversified private markets and supply lines in rural areas.
Description : This report describes and evaluates the ways in which user-fees are currently implemented to finance public health services in Sub- Saharan Africa. It presents the main issues that arise in assessing cost recovery through user fees and evaluates experiences to date. The authors highlight variety of practices encountered in different countries, the too common failure to structure charges so as to promote efficient use, and the lack of effective exemption structures for protecting the poor. The study thoroughly reviews standard cost recovery models and describes an initiative launched in Bamako, Mali, in 1987. Issues, experience, and conclusions are drawn from a sample of 38 countries.
Description : Describes a computer model to aid decisionmakers in the health services field in developing countries. As developing countries increasingly depend on user fees to finance health care services, decisionmakers in those countries face the difficult task of developing and implementing cost-recovery systems. In recent years health economists have developed computer models to aid in such analyses. This paper contains a user-friendly computer model on a 3A' diskette which combines information about demand and supply for health care obtained through surveys undertaken in Zaire. It allows the user to enter data from other settings and to simulate various changes in health care financing under a broad range of circumstances. The computer model is provided as a tool for users to assess the impact of health financing policies on health care use and health facility financial performance. The model has been developed in Lotus 1-2-3 and is contained in four spreadsheet files that can be run on any IBM- compatible microcomputer with at least 640 kilobytes of RAM memory. The paper explains in detail the assumptions and theory behind the model, and presents numerous simulations to illustrate how the model can be used. The capabilities and limitations are also outlined, along with a summary and conclusions.
Description : Despite the existence of effective interventions, there are many developing countries which are not on track to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) for health. In many countries the delivery of health services is inadequate and one way of improving the situation is to contract with non-state providers. Contracting is a mechanism for a financing entity to procure a defined set of services from a non-state provider. Performance-based contracting is a type of contracting with: (a) a clear set of objectives and indicators; (b) systematic efforts to collect data to judge contractor performance; and (c) some consequences for the contractor, either rewards or sanctions, based on performance. Effective contracting for health services can be facilitated by using a systematic approach, described in this toolkit, that addresses key issues, including how to: 1. have a constructive dialogue with all stakeholders; 2. define the health services in terms of what services are to be delivered, where, the quantity of beneficiaries to be served, equity, and quality of care; 3. design the monitoring and evaluation to judge the performance of contractors; 4. select the contractors in a fair and transparent way; 5. arrange for effective contract management; 6. draft the contract and bidding documents; and 7. carry out the bidding process and successfully manage the contracts. The toolkit also includes a review of 14 evaluated examples of contracting in developing countries which concludes that the current weight of evidence indicates that contracting improves the coverage and quality of services rapidly. The six cases with controlled, before and after evaluations demonstrated large impact with themedian double difference (follow-up minus baseline in the experimental group minus follow-up minus baseline in the control) ranging from 9 to 26 percentage points.
Description : The "human right to healthcare" has had a remarkable rise. It is found in numerous international treaties and national constitutions, it is litigated in courtrooms across the globe, it is increasingly the subject of study by scholars across a range of disciplines, and-perhaps most importantly-it serves as an inspiring rallying cry for health justice activists throughout the world. However, though increasingly accepted as a principle, the historical roots of this right remain largely unexplored. To Heal Humankind: The Right to Health in History fills that gap, combining a sweeping historical scope and interdisciplinary synthesis. Beginning with the Age of Antiquity and extending to the Age of Trump, it analyzes how healthcare has been conceived and provided as both a right and a commodity over time and space, examining the key historical and political junctures when the right to healthcare was widened or diminished in nations around the globe. To Heal Humankind will prove indispensable for all those interested in human rights, the history of public health, and the future of healthcare.