Description : Labeled either as the "next industrial revolution" or as just "hype," nanoscience and nanotechnologies are controversial, touted by some as the likely engines of spectacular transformation of human societies and even human bodies, and by others as conceptually flawed. These challenges make an encyclopedia of nanoscience and society an absolute necessity. Providing a guide to what these understandings and challenges are about, the Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Society offers accessible descriptions of some of the key technical achievements of nanoscience along with its history and prospects. Rather than a technical primer, this encyclopedia instead focuses on the efforts of governments around the world to fund nanoscience research and to tap its potential for economic development as well as to assess how best to regulate a new technology for the environmental, occupational, and consumer health and safety issues related to the field. Contributions examine and analyze the cultural significance of nanoscience and nanotechnologies and describe some of the organizations, and their products, that promise to make nanotechnologies a critical part of the global economy. Written by noted scholars and practitioners from around the globe, these two volumes offer nearly 500 entries describing the societal aspects of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Key Themes - Art, Design, and Materials - Bionanotechnology Centers - Context - Economics and Business - Engagement and the Public - Environment and Risk - Ethics and Values - Geographies and Distribution - History and Philosophy - Integration and Interdisciplinarity - Nanotechnology Companies - Nanotechnology Organizations
Description : From the Introduction: Nanotechnology and its underpinning sciences are progressing with unprecedented rapidity. With technical advances in a variety of nanoscale fabrication and manipulation technologies, the whole topical area is maturing into a vibrant field that is generating new scientific research and a burgeoning range of commercial applications, with an annual market already at the trillion dollar threshold. The means of fabricating and controlling matter on the nanoscale afford striking and unprecedented opportunities to exploit a variety of exotic phenomena such as quantum, nanophotonic and nanoelectromechanical effects. Moreover, researchers are elucidating new perspectives on the electronic and optical properties of matter because of the way that nanoscale materials bridge the disparate theories describing molecules and bulk matter. Surface phenomena also gain a greatly increased significance; even the well-known link between chemical reactivity and surface-to-volume ratio becomes a major determinant of physical properties, when it operates over nanoscale dimensions. Against this background, this comprehensive work is designed to address the need for a dynamic, authoritative and readily accessible source of information, capturing the full breadth of the subject. Its six volumes, covering a broad spectrum of disciplines including material sciences, chemistry, physics and life sciences, have been written and edited by an outstanding team of international experts. Addressing an extensive, cross-disciplinary audience, each chapter aims to cover key developments in a scholarly, readable and critical style, providing an indispensible first point of entry to the literature for scientists and technologists from interdisciplinary fields. The work focuses on the major classes of nanomaterials in terms of their synthesis, structure and applications, reviewing nanomaterials and their respective technologies in well-structured and comprehensive articles with extensive cross-references. It has been a constant surprise and delight to have found, amongst the rapidly escalating number who work in nanoscience and technology, so many highly esteemed authors willing to contribute. Sharing our anticipation of a major addition to the literature, they have also captured the excitement of the field itself in each carefully crafted chapter. Along with our painstaking and meticulous volume editors, full credit for the success of this enterprise must go to these individuals, together with our thanks for (largely) adhering to the given deadlines. Lastly, we record our sincere thanks and appreciation for the skills and professionalism of the numerous Elsevier staff who have been involved in this project, notably Fiona Geraghty, Megan Palmer and Greg Harris, and especially Donna De Weerd-Wilson who has steered it through from its inception. We have greatly enjoyed working with them all, as we have with each other.
Description : Get complete, up-to-date and authoritative coverage of technology and innovation. A broadly encompassing encyclopedia on the emerging topic of technology innovation and management (TIM), this volume covers a wide array of issues. TIM is a relatively new field and is highly interdisciplinary, incorporating strategy and entrepreneurship, economics, marketing, organizational behavior, organization theory, physical and life sciences, and even law. All of these disciplines are represented in this volume, and their intersections are made clear. Entries are contributed by scholars from around the world who are leading experts in their respective topics. This volume is appropriate for scholars who are new to this particular field, as well as industry practitioners interested in understanding the state of knowledge in these specific areas. Entries may also serve as useful instructional materials, given their span of coverage as well as their currency. VK Narayanan is Stubbs Professor of Strategy & Entrepreneurship and Associate Dean of Research at Drexel University, Philadelphia, U.S.A. Gina O'Connor is Associate Professor of Marketing in the Lally School of Management and Technology at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, U.S.A.
Description : An Updated Edition of the Classic Text Polymers constitute the basis for the plastics, rubber, adhesives, fiber, and coating industries. The Fourth Edition of Introduction to Physical Polymer Science acknowledges the industrial success of polymers and the advancements made in the field while continuing to deliver the comprehensive introduction to polymer science that made its predecessors classic texts. The Fourth Edition continues its coverage of amorphous and crystalline materials, glass transitions, rubber elasticity, and mechanical behavior, and offers updated discussions of polymer blends, composites, and interfaces, as well as such basics as molecular weight determination. Thus, interrelationships among molecular structure, morphology, and mechanical behavior of polymers continue to provide much of the value of the book. Newly introduced topics include: * Nanocomposites, including carbon nanotubes and exfoliated montmorillonite clays * The structure, motions, and functions of DNA and proteins, as well as the interfaces of polymeric biomaterials with living organisms * The glass transition behavior of nano-thin plastic films In addition, new sections have been included on fire retardancy, friction and wear, optical tweezers, and more. Introduction to Physical Polymer Science, Fourth Edition provides both an essential introduction to the field as well as an entry point to the latest research and developments in polymer science and engineering, making it an indispensable text for chemistry, chemical engineering, materials science and engineering, and polymer science and engineering students and professionals.
Description : A revolution is occurring in science and technology, based on the recently developed ability to measure, manipulate and organize matter on the nanoscale - 1 to 100 billionths of a meter. At the nanoscale, physics, chemistry, biology, materials science, and engineering converge toward the same principles and tools. As a result, progress in nanoscience will have very far-reaching impact. The nanoscale is not just another step toward miniaturization, but a qualitatively new scale. The new behavior is dominated by quantum mechanics, material confinement in small structures, large interfacial volume fraction, and other unique properties, phenomena and processes. Many current theories of matter at the microscale have critical lengths of nanometer dimensions. These theories will be inadequate to describe the new phenomena at the nanoscale. As knowledge in nanoscience increases worldwide, there will likely be fundamental scientific advances. In tum, this will lead to dramatic changes in the ways materials, devices, and systems are understood and created. Innovative nanoscale properties and functions will be achieved through the control of matter at its building blocks: atom-by-atom, molecule-by molecule, and nanostructure-by-nanostructure. Nanotechnology will include the integration of these nanoscale structures into larger material components, systems, and architectures. However, within these larger scale systems the control and construction will remain at the nanoscale.
Description : This encyclopedia considers both the professional ethics of science and technology, and the social, ethical, and political issues raised by science and technology.