Emulsions

Written By Tharwat F. Tadros
Emulsions
  • Publsiher : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
  • Release : 21 March 2016
  • ISBN : 3110452243
  • Pages : 242 pages
  • Rating : /5 from reviews
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Download or read book entitled Emulsions by author: Tharwat F. Tadros which was release on 21 March 2016 and published by Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG with total page 242 pages . This book available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle Format. Chapter 1 General Introduction Definition of emulsions and the role of the emulsifier. Classification based on the nature of the emulsifier. Classification based on the structure of the system. General instability problems with emulsions : creaming/sedimentation, flocculation, Ostwald ripening, coalescence and phase inversion. Importance of emulsions in various industrial applications. Chapter 2 Thermodynamics of Emulsion Formation and Breakdown Application of the second law of thermodynamics for emulsion formation : Balance of energy and entropy and non-spontaneous formation of emulsions. Breakdown of the emulsion by flocculation and coalescence in the absence of an emulsifier. Role of the emulsifier in preventing flocculation and coalescence by creating an energy barrier resulting from the repulsive energies between the droplets. Chapter 3 Interaction Forces between Emulsion Droplets Van der Waals attraction and its dependence on droplet size, Hamaker constant and separation distance between the droplets. Electrostatic repulsion resulting from the presence of electrical double layers and its dependence on surface (or zeta) potential and electrolyte concentration and valency. Combination of the van der Waals attraction with double layer repulsion and the theory of colloid stability. Steric repulsion resulting from the presence of adsorbed non-ionic surfactants and polymers. Combination of van der Waals attraction with steric repulsion and the theory of steric stabilisation. Chapter 4 Adsorption of Surfactants at the Oil/Water Interface Thermodynamic analysis of surfactant adsorption and the Gibbs adsorption isotherm. Calculation of the amount of surfactant adsorption and area per surfactant molecule at the interface. Experimental techniques for measuring the interfacial tension. Chapter 5 Mechanism of Emulsification and the Role of the Emulsifier Description of the factors responsible for droplet deformation and its break-up. Role of surfactant in preventing coalescence during emulsification. Definition of the Gibbs dilational elasticity and the Marangoni effect in preventing coalescence. Chapter 6 Methods of Emulsification Pipe flow, static mixers and high speed stirrers (rotor-stator mixer). Laminar and turbulent flow. Membrane emulsification. High pressure homogenisers and ultrasonic methods. Chapter 7 Selection of Emulsifiers The hydrophilic-lipophilic-balance (HLB) and its application in surfactant selection. Calculation of HLB numbers and the effect of the nature of the oil phase. The phase inversion temperature (PIT) method for emulsifier selection. The cohesive energy ratio method for emulsifier selection. Chapter 8 Creaming/Sedimentation of Emulsions and its prevention Driving force for creaming/sedimentation: effect of gravity, droplet size and density difference between the oil and continuous phase. Calculation of the rate of creaming/sedimentation in dilute emulsions. Influence of increase of the volume fraction of the disperse phase on the rate of creaming/sedimentation. Reduction of creaming/sedimentation: Balance of the density of the two phases, reduction of droplet size and effect of addition of ''thickeners'. Chapter 9 Flocculation of Emulsions and its Prevention Factors affecting flocculation. Calculation of fast and slow flocculation rate. Definition of stability ratio and its dependence on electrolyte concentration and valency. Definition of the critical coagulation concentration and its dependence on electrolyte valency. Reduction of flocculation by enhancing the repulsive forces. Chapter 10 Ostwald Ripening and its Reduction Factors responsible for Ostwald ripening : difference in solubility between small and large droplets and the Kelvin equation. Calculation of the rate of Ostwald ripening. Reduction of Ostwald ripening by incorporation of a small amount of highly insoluble oil. Reduction of Ostwald ripening by the use of strongly adsorbed polymeric surfactant and enhancement of the Gibbs elasticity. Chapter 11 Emulsion Coalescence and its Prevention Driving force for emulsion coalescence : Thinning and disruption of the liquid film between the droplets. The concept of disjoining pressure for prevention of coalescence. Methods for reduction or elimination of coalescence : Use of mixed surfactant films, use of lamellar liquid crystalline phases and use of polymeric surfactants. Chapter 12 Phase Inversion and its Prevention Distinction between catastrophic and transient phase inversion. Influence of the disperse volume fraction and surfactant HLB number. Explanation of the factors responsible for phase inversion. Chapter 13 Characterisation of Emulsions Measurement of droplet size distribution : Optical microscopy and image analysis. Phase contrast and polarising microscopyDiffraction methods. Confocal laser microscopy. Back scattering methods Chapter 14 Industrial Application of Emulsions 14.1 Application in Pharmacy 14.2 Application in Cosmetics 14.3 Application in Agrochemicals 14.4 Application in Paints 14.5 Application in the Oil Industry

Emulsions

Emulsions
  • Author : Tharwat F. Tadros
  • Publisher : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
  • Release Date : 2016-03-21
  • Total pages : 242
  • ISBN : 3110452243
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Summary : Chapter 1 General Introduction Definition of emulsions and the role of the emulsifier. Classification based on the nature of the emulsifier. Classification based on the structure of the system. General instability problems with emulsions : creaming/sedimentation, flocculation, Ostwald ripening, coalescence and phase inversion. Importance of emulsions in various industrial applications. Chapter 2 ...

Oil field Emulsions

Oil field Emulsions
  • Author : Donald B. Dow
  • Publisher : Unknown
  • Release Date : 1926
  • Total pages : 112
  • ISBN : 3110452243
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Summary : Read online Oil field Emulsions written by Donald B. Dow, published by which was released on 1926. Download full Oil field Emulsions Books now! Available in PDF, ePub and Kindle....

Practices and Methods of Preventing and Treating Crude oil Emulsions

Practices and Methods of Preventing and Treating Crude oil Emulsions
  • Author : Gerald Bernard Shea
  • Publisher : Unknown
  • Release Date : 1939
  • Total pages : 106
  • ISBN : 3110452243
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Summary : Read online Practices and Methods of Preventing and Treating Crude oil Emulsions written by Gerald Bernard Shea, published by which was released on 1939. Download full Practices and Methods of Preventing and Treating Crude oil Emulsions Books now! Available in PDF, ePub and Kindle....

A Basic Asphalt Emulsion Manual Understanding and using emulsions

A Basic Asphalt Emulsion Manual  Understanding and using emulsions
  • Author : Asphalt Institute
  • Publisher : Unknown
  • Release Date : 1979
  • Total pages : 212
  • ISBN : 3110452243
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Summary : Read online A Basic Asphalt Emulsion Manual Understanding and using emulsions written by Asphalt Institute, published by which was released on 1979. Download full A Basic Asphalt Emulsion Manual Understanding and using emulsions Books now! Available in PDF, ePub and Kindle....

Laboratory Oil recovery Tests with Ultrasonically Formed Emulsions

Laboratory Oil recovery Tests with Ultrasonically Formed Emulsions
  • Author : Charles A. Komar,Harold A. W. Moore
  • Publisher : Unknown
  • Release Date : 1969
  • Total pages : 14
  • ISBN : 3110452243
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Summary : Read online Laboratory Oil recovery Tests with Ultrasonically Formed Emulsions written by Charles A. Komar,Harold A. W. Moore, published by which was released on 1969. Download full Laboratory Oil recovery Tests with Ultrasonically Formed Emulsions Books now! Available in PDF, ePub and Kindle....

Nano Emulsions

Nano Emulsions
  • Author : H. Kunieda,C. Solans
  • Publisher : Unknown
  • Release Date : 2001-04-01
  • Total pages : 300
  • ISBN : 3110452243
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Summary : This book describes fundamental and practical aspects of nano-emulsions. It has two important features: nano-emulsion formation is related to surfactant self-organizing structures and phase behavior of water/surfactant(s)/oil systems; for the first time, all aspects of nano-emulsions (fundamental and practical) are presented together in a publication. The introductory ...

Emulsions

Emulsions
  • Author : Alexandru Grumezescu
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2016-06-13
  • Total pages : 768
  • ISBN : 3110452243
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Summary : Emulsions, the third volume of the Nanotechnology in the Food Industry series, is an invaluable resource for anyone in the food industry who needs the most recent information about scientific advances in nanotechnology on this topic. This volume focuses on basic and advanced knowledge about nanoemulsion, and presents an overview ...

Emulsions

Emulsions
  • Author : Paul Becher
  • Publisher : Amer Chemical Society
  • Release Date : 2001
  • Total pages : 513
  • ISBN : 3110452243
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Summary : A great introduction to the study and fomulation of emulsions, this book discusses background theory, physical properties of emulsions, theories of emulsion stability and instability, emulsifying agents and their chemistry, formulation procedures and techniques, and industrial applications of emulsification and demulsification....

Emulsions

Emulsions
  • Author : Johan Sjöblom
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2012-12-06
  • Total pages : 302
  • ISBN : 3110452243
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Summary : Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop, Bergen, Norway, June 24-25, 1991...

Emulsions Foams and Suspensions

Emulsions  Foams  and Suspensions
  • Author : Laurier L. Schramm
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release Date : 2006-05-12
  • Total pages : 463
  • ISBN : 3110452243
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Summary : Until now colloid science books have either been theoretical, or focused on specific types of dispersion, or on specific applications. This then is the first book to provide an integrated introduction to the nature, formation and occurrence, stability, propagation, and uses of the most common types of colloidal dispersion in ...

Crude Oil Waxes Emulsions and Asphaltenes

Crude Oil Waxes  Emulsions  and Asphaltenes
  • Author : J. R. Becker
  • Publisher : PennWell Books
  • Release Date : 1997
  • Total pages : 276
  • ISBN : 3110452243
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Summary : Oilfield waxes and emulsions are petroleum byproducts that increase the costs of production, transportation, and refining by causing equipment failures, plugged pipelines, and decreased throughput. This book is the first of its kind in explaining the physical chemical problems associated with waxes and emulsions and the new technologies for treatment ...

Emulsions Foams and Thin Films

Emulsions  Foams  and Thin Films
  • Author : K.L. Mittal,Promod Kumar
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release Date : 2000-05-16
  • Total pages : 520
  • ISBN : 3110452243
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Summary : This volume presents the acomplishments of over 85 internationlly renowned scientists whose work was influenced by Professor Wasan's groundbreaking research on interfacial phenomena at The Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago....

Emulsions Structure Stability and Interactions

Emulsions  Structure  Stability and Interactions
  • Author : Dimiter N. Petsev
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release Date : 2004-10-14
  • Total pages : 780
  • ISBN : 3110452243
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Summary : Emulsions: Structure, Stability and Interactions is the perfect handbook for scientists looking to obtain up-to-date knowledge about the fundamentals of emulsion science, and those looking to familiarize themselves with the subject in greater detail. As a ‘stand-alone’ source of information, it is also ideal for solving the practical issues encountered ...

Particle Stabilized Emulsions and Colloids

Particle Stabilized Emulsions and Colloids
  • Author : To Ngai,Stefan A. F. Bon
  • Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
  • Release Date : 2014-11-13
  • Total pages : 322
  • ISBN : 3110452243
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Summary : There has been much scientific interest in the behaviour of colloidal particles at liquid interfaces. From a research aspect they provide model systems for fundamental studies of condensed matter physics. From a commercial aspect they provide applications for making new materials in the cosmetics, food and paint industries. In many ...

Emulsion Science

Emulsion Science
  • Author : Jerôme Bibette,Fernando Leal-Calderon,Véronique Schmitt,Philippe Poulin
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2003-07-01
  • Total pages : 142
  • ISBN : 3110452243
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Summary : Emulsions occur either as end products or during the processing of products in a huge range of areas including the food, agrochemical, pharmaceuticals, paints and oil industries. As end products, emulsions allow to avoid organic solvent in processing hydrophobic coatings. Emulsion technology is a suitable approach to vehicle viscous phases. ...