Description : The chemical composition of the Universe has evolved over billions of years. A host of astrophysical processes and observations must be understood in order to explain why celestial objects have the chemical compositions observed. Originally published in 2004, this book contains the lectures delivered at the XIII Canary Islands Winter School of Astrophysics, which was dedicated to reviewing current knowledge about the origin and evolution of the chemical elements in the Universe. Written by seven prestigious astrophysics researchers, it covers cosmological and stellar nucleosynthesis, abundance determinations in stars and ionised nebulae, chemical composition of nearby and distant galaxies, and models of chemical evolution of galaxies and intracluster medium. This is a timely review of developments in cosmochemistry over the last decade.
Description : How did the Solar System's chemical composition evolve? This textbook provides the answers in the first interdisciplinary introduction to cosmochemistry. It makes this exciting and evolving field accessible to undergraduate and graduate students from a range of backgrounds, including geology, chemistry, astronomy and physics. The authors - two established leaders who have pioneered developments in the field - provide a complete background to cosmochemical processes and discoveries, enabling students outside geochemistry to understand and explore the Solar System's composition. Topics covered include: - synthesis of nuclides in stars - partitioning of elements between solids, liquids and gas in the solar nebula - overviews of the chemistry of extraterrestrial materials - isotopic tools used to investigate processes such as planet accretion and element fractionation - chronology of the early Solar System - geochemical exploration of planets Boxes provide basic definitions and mini-courses in mineralogy, organic chemistry, and other essential background information for students. Review questions and additional reading for each chapter encourage students to explore cosmochemistry further.
Description : The International Association of Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry was organized in 1967, and held its first meeting at UNESCO Headquartels that year in association with its symposium on The Origin and Distribution of the Elements'. The Association is a member of the International Union uf Geological Sciences, and holds regular meetings at the time of the I nternatlOnal Geological Congresses, the last of which was held in Montreal, in August. 1972. The IAGC was organized to coordinate activities on an international scale in a wide variety of branches of geochemistry. Its activities are carried on through Commissions and Working Groups, and by means of symposia and other international activities. It has national, corporate, and individual members. One of the first actions taken by the Council of the [AGC when it met in 1967 was to establish an initial set of Working Groups to commence the activity of the organization. Among these Working Groups was one on Extraterrestrial Chemistry, established under the chairmanship of the writer. This Working Group recognized that its basic concern with the chemical composition of cosmic systems was a problem with ramifications in many fields in addition to geochemistry. The other scien tific disciplines which are involved include physics, astronomy and astrophysics, and geophysics. The Working Group thus included scientists in these disciplines from the beginning; many of the scientists had already participated in the first symposium of the IAGe. The Working Group has recently been elevated to the status of a Commission.
Description : This upper-division textbook describes the composition and evolution of material objects in the universe. The survey begins with a discussion of terrestrial materials and ends with the composition of quasars and distant galaxies. There are two main themes: chemical processes responsible for the abundances we observe, and nuclear processes in which the chemical elements originate. The author presents a total pedagogic synthesis of the subject, building on the basic information in the first chapters to lead into a fuller explanation of the composition of the planets and stellar and primordial nucleosynthesis. The later chapters treat the analytical methods of stellar and nebular spectra, and move on to the composition of stars and galaxies. The book is fully referenced and includes problem sets for the student.
Description : Written by a pioneer in the field, here is coverage of the principles of the chemical composition of the solar system. Based on the author's course, entitled ''Introduction to Cosmochemistry, '' the text is written with the student in mind. It outlines elementary background in relation to earth and planetary sciences, considering cosmochemical problems while focusing on the structure, chemical elements and isotopes of the matter from which our solar system is formed
Description : For the first time in human history, developments in many branches of science provide us with an opportunity of formula ting a comprehensive picture of the universe from its beginning to the present time. It is an awesome reflection that the carbon in our bodies is the very carbon which was generated during the birth of a star. There is a perceptible continuum through the billions of years which can be revealed by the study of chemistry. Studies in nucleosynthesis have related the origin of the elements to the life history of the stars. The chemical elements we find on earth, HYdrogen, Carbon, Oxygen, and Nitrogen, were created in astronomical processes that took place in the past, and these elements are not spread throughout space in the form of stars and galaxies. Radioastronomers have discovered a vast array of organic molecules in the interstellar medium which have a bearing on prebiological chemical processes. Many of the molecules found so far contain the four elements, C, N, 0, H. Except for the chem ically unreactive He, these four elements are the most abundant in the galaxy. The origin of polyatomic interstellar molecules is an unresolved problem. While we can explain the formation of some diatomic molecules as due to two atom collisions, it is much more difficult to form polyatomic molecules by collisions between diatomic molecules and atoms. There may be other produc tion mechanisms at work such as reactions taking place on the surface of interstellar dust grains.
Description : Volume 47 of Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry introduces to Noble Gases. Although the mass spectrometry principles are not complex, the tricks involved in getting better data are often self taught or passed on by working with individuals who themselves are pushing the boundaries further. Furthermore, much of the exciting new science is linked with technical developments that allow us to move beyond the current measurement capabilities. Be they better crushing devices, laser resonance time of flight, multiple collection or compressor sources - the technical issues are central to progress. Contents: Noble Gases – Noble Science An Overview of Noble Gas Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry Noble Gases in the Solar System Noble Gases in the Moon and Meteorites: Radiogenic Components and Early Volatile Chronologies Cosmic-Ray-Produced Noble Gases in Meteorites Martian Noble Gases Origin of Noble Gases in the Terrestrial Planets Noble Gas Isotope Geochemistry of Mid-Ocean Ridge and Ocean Island Basalts: Characterization of Mantle Source Reservoirs Noble Gases and Volatile Recycling at Subduction Zones The Storage and Transport of Noble Gases in the Subcontinental Lithosphere Models for the Distribution of Terrestrial Noble Gases and the Evolution of the Atmosphere Production, Release and Transport of Noble Gases in the Continental Crust Tracing Fluid Origin, Transport and Interaction in the Crust Noble Gases in Lakes and Ground Waters Noble Gases in Ocean Waters and Sediments Cosmic-Ray-Produced Noble Gases in Terrestrial Rocks: Dating Tools for Surface Processes K-Ar and Ar-Ar Dating (U-Th)/He Dating: Techniques, Calibrations, and Applications