Description : Pakistan has exercised different forms of Political systems like Presidential, Parliamentary, Federation and One Unit. Local Bodies system has also been influenced by these experiences. It has been facing Political, non-political, dictators and bureaucratic influence. Pakistan has poor facts of democracy. It has been ruled by the military, while the Military governments always generated mistakes with the politicians. Pakistan’s capacity to protract the low cost conflict in Kashmir is beyond any doubt. Although the likely spillover effects of this on Pakistan’s polity are obvious, they will be, to a great degree, manageable. The Islamist organisations, in spite of their opposition to elements of the state and its armed forces, are in favour of maintaining the unity of the country that is, for them, “the fortress of Islam” and “the only Islamic nuclear power”. And though the US wants to tame the Pakistan army, and especially ISI its intelligence agency, it knows it will not benefit from the disintegration of the country. Nevertheless the pressures that imperialism and neoliberalism are putting on the country are creating a complex mesh of ethnic and nationalist tensions that could lead to a spiralling war. Only by fighting for a unified working class response to the pressures of globalisation and war can we hope to be able to offer an alternative.
Description : This book discusses the political processes in contemporary Pakistan with the aim to understand the crises the country is confronted with. The author provides insights into Pakistan's traumatic political history - one that exemplifies a long-drawn battle between authoritarianism and constitutionalism - and an enduring ideological conflict between Islamic nationalism, regionalism and elite pluralism.
Description : With a population of 190 million, Pakistan is strategically located at the crossroads of the Middle East, Central and South Asia, and has the second largest Muslim population in the world. The Routledge Handbook of Contemporary Pakistan provides an in-depth and comprehensive coverage of issues from identity and the creation of Pakistan in 1947 to its external relations as well as its domestic social, economic and political issues and challenges. The Handbook is divided into the following sections: • Economy and development • External relations and security • Foundations and identity • Islam and Islamization • Military and jihad • Politics and institutions • Social issues The Handbook explains the reasons why Pakistan is so often at the forefront of our daily news intake, with a focus on religious and political factors. It asks questions regarding the institutions and political parties which govern Pakistan and provides an insight into the relationships which the country has forged since its creation, culminating in a discussion of the state’s involvement in conflict. Covering a range of topics, this Handbook offers a wide range of perspectives on Pakistan. Bringing together a group of leading international scholars on Pakistan, the Handbook is a cutting-edge and interdisciplinary resource for those interested in studying Pakistani politics, economics, culture and society and South Asian Studies.
Description : This book focuses on the way that notions of home and identity have changed for Muslims as a result of international 'war on terror' rhetoric. It uniquely links the post-9/11 stereotyping of Muslims and Islam in the West to the roots of current jihadism and the resurgence of ethnocentrism within the subcontinent and beyond.
Description : Looking at a wide selection of Pakistani novels in English, this book explores how literary texts imaginatively probe the past, convey the present, and project a future in terms that facilitate a sense of collective belonging. The novels discussed cover a range of historical movements and developments, including pre-20th century Islamic history, the 1947 partition, the 1971 Pakistani war, the Zia years, and post-9/11 Pakistan, as well as pervasive themes, including ethnonationalist tensions, the zamindari system, and conspiracy thinking. The book offers a range of representations of how and whether collective belonging takes shape, and illustrates how the Pakistani novel in English, often overshadowed by the proliferation of the Indian novel in English, complements Pakistani multi-lingual literary imaginaries by presenting alternatives to standard versions of history and by highlighting the issues English-language literary production bring to the fore in a broader Pakistani context. It goes on to look at the literary devices and themes used to portray idea, nation and state as a foundation for collective belonging. The book illustrates the distinct contributions the Pakistani novel in English makes to the larger fields of postcolonial and South Asian literary and cultural studies.