Description : Offers a comparison of medical practices in the United States, Japan, and France and the variations of type and prevalence of physcians' conficts of interest.
Description : Reproductive technology allows us to test embryos' genes before deciding whether to transfer them to a woman's uterus. Embryo selection raises many ethical questions but is virtually unregulated in the United States. This comprehensive study considers the ethical, medical, political, and economic aspects of developing appropriate regulation.
Description : Health systems need to set priorities fairly. In one way or another, part of this important task will fall to physicians. How do they make judgments about resource stewardship, and how should they do so? How can they make such decisions in a manner that is compatible with their clinical duties to patients? In this book, philosophers, bioethicists, physicians, lawyers and health policy experts make the case that priority setting and rationing contribute significantly to the possibility of affordable and fair healthcare and that clinicians play an indispensable role in that process. The book depicts the results of a survey of European physicians about their experiences with rationing and other cost containment strategies, and their perception of scarcity and fairness in their health care systems. Responding to and complementing these findings, commentators discuss why resource allocation and bedside rationing is necessary and justifiable. The book explores how bedside rationing relates to clinical judgments about medical necessity and medical indications, marginal benefits, weak evidence based medicine, off-label use. The book highlights how comparative studies of health care systems can advance more effective and fair bedside rationing through learning from one another. From a practical standpoint, the book offers a number of strategies for health care systems and clinicians to work in tandem to allocate and ration resources as fairly as possible: how to foster more attention to fairness when rationing at the bedside, how to avoid exacerbating health disparities when allocating resources, how to teach about bedside rationing to students, how to discuss rationing more explicitly in the public arena and in the doctor's office.
Description : Scientific advances such as the sequencing of the human genome have created great promise for improving human health by providing a greater understanding of disease biology and enabling the development of new drugs, diagnostics, and preventive services. However, the translation of research advances into clinical applications has so far been slower than anticipated. This is due in part to the complexity of the underlying biology as well as the cost and time it takes to develop a product. Pharmaceutical companies are adapting their business models to this new reality for product development by placing increasing emphasis on leveraging alliances, joint development efforts, early-phase research partnerships, and public-private partnerships. These collaborative efforts make it possible to identify new drug targets, enhance the understanding of the underlying basis of disease, discover novel indications for the use of already approved products, and develop biomarkers for disease outcomes or directed drug use. While the potential benefits of collaboration are significant, the fact that the relationships among development partners are often financial means that it is vital to ensure trust by identifying, disclosing, and managing any potential sources of conflict that could create bias in the research being performed together. Conflict of Interest and Medical Innovation is the summary of a workshop convened by the Institute of Medicine Roundtable on Translating Genomic-Based Research for Health in June 2013 to explore the appropriate balance between identifying and managing conflicts of interest and advancing medical innovation. A wide range of stakeholders, including government officials, pharmaceutical company representatives, academic administrators and researchers, health care providers, medical ethicists, patient advocates, and consumers, were invited to present their perspectives and participate in discussions during the workshop. This report focuses on current conflict of interest policies and their effect on medical innovation in an effort to identify best practices and potential solutions for facilitating innovation while still ensuring scientific integrity and public trust.
Description : Volume 4 considers the importance of health behavior research in practical settings. Particularly notable are treatments of the "narrative approach", the taxonomy of health behavior, and the organization of health behavior knowledge. Each volume features extensive supplementary and integrative material prepared by the editor, the detailed index to the entire four-volume set, and a glossary of health behavior terminology.
Description : Learning medical professionalism is a challenging, evolving, and life-long endeavor. Professionalism in Medicine: A Case-Based Guide for Medical Students helps begin this process by engaging students and their teachers in reflection on cases that resonate with the experiences of life in medicine. Through the book's seventy-two cases, commentaries, videos, and literature-based reviews, students explore the many challenging areas of medical professionalism. Readers will appreciate the provocative professionalism dilemmas encountered by students from the pre-clinical years and clinical rotations and by physicians of various specialities. Each case is followed by two commentaries by writers who are involved in health care decisions related to that case, and who represent a wide variety of perspectives. Authors represent 46 medical schools and other institutions and include physicians, medical students, medical ethicists, lawyers, psychologists, nurses, social workers, pharmacists, health care administrators, and patient advocates.
Description : An important review on transplantation for the general surgeon! Topics include: kidney transplant, left lobe liver transplants, advances in lung transplantation, stem cell and cellular transplants, pancreatectomy, management of organ failure, transplant immune suppression, antibody mediated rejection, cardiac assist devices, organ perfusion and preservation, weight reduction therapy, organ allocation and distribution, and more!
Description : Written by one of Ireland's leading medical law academics, this practical book comprehensively covers case law and regulations regarding the healthcare system, the law relating to human reproduction, and the key issues of consent and treatment. Designed to be used by lawyers and healthcare professionals, Medicine, Ethics and the Law in Ireland provides an invaluable reference tool for anybody who requires accurate information and guidance on this area of Irish law. This new edition includes: Medical research and clinical trials; Organ donation and transportation; Patient safety and QA; and Biobanking.
Description : An important review on trauma for the general surgeon! Topics include spectrum of TBI from mild to severe, management of complex extremity injuries, long-range ICU transport, advanced technologies in trauma/CC management, non-compressible torso hemorrhage, trauma system configurations in other countries, graduate medical education in trauma/CC and acute care surgery, improving care in the trauma ICU, damage control surgery, massive transfusion and damage control resuscitation, burn/electrical/environmental injury resuscitation, pre-hospital management and tactical combat casualty care, research and analytics in trauma care, verification and regionalization of trauma systems, and more!
Description : This collection explores the subject of conflicts of interest. It investigates how to manage conflicts of interest, how they can affect well-meaning professionals, and how they can limit the effectiveness of corporate boards, undermine professional ethics, and corrupt expert opinion. Legal and policy responses are considered, some of which (e.g. disclosure) are shown to backfire and even fail. The results offer a sobering prognosis for professional ethics and for anyone who relies on professionals who have conflicts of interest. The contributors are leading authorities on the subject in the fields of law, medicine, management, public policy, and psychology. The nuances of the problems posed by conflicts of interest will be highlighted for readers in an effort to demonstrate the many ways that structuring incentives can affect decision making and organizations' financial well-being.