Description : Since the 1970s, federal policies promoting migration and encouraging agricultural development of large farms, logging, and ranching have led to the deforestation of vast areas of the Amazon rainforest.Though these policies have largely been replaced, deforestation continues. What effects do current macroeconomic and regional policies and events have on deforestation and on the well-being of settlers on the agricultural frontier? This report identifies the links between the agriculture and logging sectors in the Amazon, economic growth, poverty alleviation, and natural resource degradation in the region and in Brazil as a whole.It considers the effects of currency devaluation, building roads and other infrastructure in the Amazon, property rights, adoption of technological change, and fiscal incentives and disincentives to deforest.The results are sometimes counterintuitive, but shed new light on why slowing deforestation is so difficult and on the trade-offs between environmental and economic goals.
Description : Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Brazil in context: comparing tropical deforestation rates around the world.Trends and geographic distribution of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation in Brazil. Modeling interactions between the environment and the economy. Agriculture and land degradation processes in the Brazilian Amazon. The effects of macroeconomic, interregional, and intraregional change. Incentive mechanisms for natural resource management: bridging the Gap between private and social costs.
Description : Policies promoting pro-poor agricultural growth are the key to helping countries achieve the Millennium Development Goals especially the goal of halving poverty and hunger by 2015. The public sector, private sector, and civil society organizations are working to enhance productivity and competitiveness of the agricultural sector to reduce rural poverty and sustain the natural resource base. The pathways involve participation by rural communities, science and technology, knowledge generation and further learning, capacity enhancement, and institution building. Sustainable land management (SLM) an essential component of such policies will help to ensure the productivity of agriculture, forestry, fisheries, and hydrology. SLM will also support a range of ecosystem services on which agriculture depends. The 'Sustainable Land Management Sourcebook' provides a knowledge repository of tested practices and innovative resource management approaches that are currently being tested. The diverse menu of options represents the current state of the art of good land management practices. Section one identifies the need and scope for SLM and food production in relation to cross-sector issues such as freshwater and forest resources, regional climate and air quality, and interactions with biodiversity conservation and increasingly valuable ecosystem services. Section two categorizes the diversity of land management systems globally and the strategies for improving household livelihoods in each system type. Section three presents a range of investment notes that summarize good practice, as well as innovative activity profiles that highlight design of successful or innovative investments. Section four identifies easy-to-access, Web-based resources relevant for land and natural resource managers. The 'Sourcebook' is a living document that will be periodically updated and expanded as new material and findings become available on good land management practices. This book will be of interest to project managers and practitioners working to enhance land and natural resource management in developing countries.
Description : In the last few decades, Brazilian agriculture has experienced a seismic transformation, and its contradictory facets have fed different and opposing narratives regarding recent changes. This book covers these changes, exploring the issues from several empirical and analytical angles, including the role of agriculture in the contemporary Brazilian economy, the dynamics of Brazilian agricultural value chains, environmental challenges and the processes of social differentiation. Brazilian agriculture continues to be viewed in the international literature, either through the lenses of the past century – those of former problems relating to land use and land tenure – or apologetically. This collection of essays aims at updating the current interpretations, providing objective accounting of the main transformations, its determinants, results, contradictions and limitations. As it covers the most relevant traits of Brazilian agricultural and rural development, the book will provide the reader with an encompassing view of contemporary Brazilian agriculture, including the positive and negative sides of the so-called tropical agriculture revolution. It highlights the tremendous economic potential as well as the continuing structural heterogeneity, concentration of production and marginalization of millions of small farmers. Written in an engaging and accessible style, this book will be perfect for all those interested in learning about Brazilian agriculture. It will be of particular interest to undergraduate and graduate students of economic development, agricultural economics, rural sociology, comparative economic development, rural development and agricultural policies.
Description : Attempts to halt the destruction of rain forests and other natural habitats in the tropics have met with little success. In particular, national parks, like those found in wealthy nations, have proven difficult to establish in Africa, Asia, and South and Central America. More often than not, people inhabiting areas designated for protection resist being told by outsiders that they must change how and where they live. Alternative approaches, frequently embodied in integrated conservation and development projects (ICDPs), are now being pursued. The goal is to address local communities' desires for improved standards of living while simultaneously meeting conservation objectives. Nature-based tourism and sustainable harvesting of forest products are the centerpieces of ICDPs and related initiatives. This book assesses the viability of conservation strategies predicated on the adoption of environmentally sound enterprises in and around threatened habitats. Drawing on research in Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador and Peru and on his extensive experience working in South and Central America and the Caribbean, the author demonstrates that it is rare for forest dwellers to derive much benefit from ecotourism, the extraction of timber and other commodities, or the collection of samples used in pharmaceutical research. Often these activities are simply unprofitable. Even when they are profitable, the benefits tend not to accrue locally, but instead are captured by outside firms and individuals who can provide important services like safe and reliable transportation. The author contends that human capital formation and related productivity-enhancing investment is the only sure path to economic progress and habitat conservation.
Description : This volume is based on plenary presentations from Challenges of a Changing Earth, a Global Change Open Science Conference held in Amsterdam, The Neth- lands, in July 2001. The meeting brought together about 1400 scientists from 105 co- tries around the world to describe, discuss and debate the latest scientific - derstanding of natural and human-driven changes to our planet. It examined the effects of these changes on our societies and our lives, and explored what the future might hold. The presentations drew upon global change science from an exceptionally wide range of disciplines and approaches. Issues of societal importance – the food system, air quality, the carbon cycle, and water resources – were highlighted from both policy and science perspectives. Many of the talks presented the exciting scientific advances of the past decade of international research on global change. Several challenged the scientific community in the future. What are the visionary and creative new approaches needed for studying a complex planetary system in which human activities are in- mately interwoven with natural processes? This volume aims to capture the timeliness and excitement of the science p- sented in Amsterdam. The plenary speakers were given a daunting task: to reproduce their presentations in a way that delivers their scientific messages accurately and in sufficient detail but at the same time reaches a very broad audience well beyond their own disciplines. Furthermore, they were required to do this in just a few pages.
Description : Scope of the study; Organization of the report; The forests and forest sector in Brazil; How much forest is there?; The Amazon; The Atlantic forest; Changes in forest cover; The economic importance of Brazil's forests; Size of the forest sector; International trade; Pressures on the forests; Deforestation and government policies; Forest regulation; Weak institutional environment and enforcement; Logging; Agricultural expansion; Smallholder agriculture in the western Amazon; Agriculture expansion in Parana; Development; Forest fires; Agricultural credit; Protecting Brazil's forests: the role of parks and plantations; Protected areas; Plantation forestry; Important issues in the forest sector; Costs and benefits of managed forests in Brazil; Conservation solutions; Certification; Indigenous communities; Extraction of non-timber forest products; Forest research and forest technology; The changing role of the public sector; The influence of nongovernmental organizations; The World Bank and Brazil; Overview; The Bank program in Brazil; Country assistance strategies; New environmental strategies; Economic and sector work since 1991; World Bank lending portfolio; Evaluation of the bank program in Brazil; Minas Gerais forestry development; Northwest region integration program (POLONOROESTE); Rondonia and Mato Grosso natural resource management projects; Emergency fire prevention; Land management projects; Agriculture and forestry technology development; Global environment facility; Pilot program to conserve the Amazon rain forest (PPG-7); Projects with possible impacts on forests; Transportation projects and the forests of Brazil; Land reform projects; Supplemental tables; The 1991 forest strategy; Economic background; World Bank inspection panel findings for the PLANFLORO Project; OED - and QAG - Evaluated projects; Summary of november 1999 Brasilia Workshop and stakeholder comments; Summary of march 2000 Brasilia Workshop.
Description : From the pre-Columbian era to the present, native Amazonians have shaped the land around them, emphasizing utilization, conservation, and sustainability. These priorities stand in stark contrast to colonial and contemporary exploitation of Amazonia by outside interests. With essays from environmental scientists, botanists, and anthropologists, this volume explores the various effects of human development on Amazonia. The contributors argue that by protecting and drawing on local knowledge and values, further environmental ruin can be avoided.