Description : Constraints allow developers to specify desired properties of systems in a number of domains, and have those properties be maintained automatically. This results in compact, declarative code, avoiding scattered code to check and imperatively re-satisfy invariants. Despite these advantages, constraint programming is not yet widespread, with standard imperative programming still the norm. There is a long history of research on integrating constraint programming with the imperative paradigm. However, this integration typically does not unify the constructs for encapsulation and abstraction from both paradigms. This impedes re-use of modules, as client code written in one paradigm can only use modules written to support that paradigm. Modules require redundant definitions if they are to be used in both paradigms. We present a language – Babelsberg – that unifies the constructs for en- capsulation and abstraction by using only object-oriented method definitions for both declarative and imperative code. Our prototype – Babelsberg/R – is an extension to Ruby, and continues to support Ruby’s object-oriented se- mantics. It allows programmers to add constraints to existing Ruby programs in incremental steps by placing them on the results of normal object-oriented message sends. It is implemented by modifying a state-of-the-art Ruby virtual machine. The performance of standard object-oriented code without con- straints is only modestly impacted, with typically less than 10% overhead compared with the unmodified virtual machine. Furthermore, our architec- ture for adding multiple constraint solvers allows Babelsberg to deal with constraints in a variety of domains. We argue that our approach provides a useful step toward making con- straint solving a generic tool for object-oriented programmers. We also provide example applications, written in our Ruby-based implementation, which use constraints in a variety of application domains, including interactive graphics, circuit simulations, data streaming with both hard and soft constraints on performance, and configuration file Management.
Description : The Cold War was not only about the imperial ambitions of the super powers, their military strategies, and antagonistic ideologies. It was also about conflicting worldviews and their correlates in the daily life of the societies involved. The term "Cold War Culture" is often used in a broad sense to describe media influences, social practices, and symbolic representations as they shape, and are shaped by, international relations. Yet, it remains in question whether - or to what extent - the Cold War Culture model can be applied to European societies, both in the East and the West. While every European country had to adapt to the constraints imposed by the Cold War, individual development was affected by specific conditions as detailed in these chapters. This volume offers an important contribution to the international debate on this issue of the Cold War impact on everyday life by providing a better understanding of its history and legacy in Eastern and Western Europe.
Description : The Film Studio sheds new light on the evolution of global film production, highlighting the role of film studios worldwide. The authors explore the contemporary international production environment, alleging that global competition is best understood as an unequal and unstable partnership between the 'design interest' of footloose producers and the 'location interest' of local actors. Ben Goldsmith and Tom O'Regan identify various types of film studios and investigate the consequences for Hollywood, international film production, and the studio locations.
Description : Studio Babelsberg is the eldest large area film studio in the world and the birthplace of the German film industry. A vast amount of world-class movie makers have worked at these sets and produced brilliant, renowned movies. Many actors became stars through Babelsberg. In many different ways has the film studio always promoted the international role of cinema movies though out the years and has been a role model in film technical innovation especially in the fields of Camera techniques and Sound.