Description : This study was well-established as a pioneer work on archaeological methodology, the theoretical basis of all archaeological analysis whatever the period or era. The first edition of the book presented and evaluated the radical changes in methodology which derived from developments in other disciplines, such as cybernetics, computer science and geography, during the 1950s and ‘60s. It argued that archaeology was a coherent discipline with its own methods and procedures and attempted to define the entities (attributes, artefacts, types, assemblages, cultures and culture groups) rigorously and consistently so that they could be applied to archaeological data. The later edition continued the same general theory, which is unparalleled in its scope and depth, adding notes to help understanding of the advances in method and theory to support the student and professional archaeologist. Review of the original publication: "One might venture that this is the most important archaeological work for twenty or thirty years, and it will undoubtedly influence several future generations of archaeologists." The Times Literary Supplement
Description : List of figures p. ix List of tables p. xii Preface p. xiii Part I The Role of Analytical Chemistry in Archaeology p. 1 1 Archaeology and Analytical Chemistry p. 3 1.1 The history of analytical chemistry in archaeology p. 5 1.2 Basic archaeological questions p. 10 1.3 Questions of process p. 25 2 An Introduction to Analytical Chemistry p. 31 2.1 What is chemistry? p. 31 2.2 Analytical chemistry p. 38 2.3 Special considerations in the analysis of archaeological material p. 42 Part II The Application of Analytical Chemistry to Archaeology p. 45 3 Elemental Analysis By Absorption and Emission Spectroscopies in the Visible and Ultraviolet p. 47 3.1 Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) p. 47 3.2 Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) p. 48 3.3 Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) p. 57 3.4 Comparison of analysis by absorption/emission spectrometries p. 60 3.5 Greek pots and European bronzes - archaeological applications of emission/absorption spectrometries p. 62 4 Molecular Analysis by Absorption and Raman Spectroscopy p. 70 4.1 Optical and UV spectrophotometry p. 70 4.2 Infrared absorption spectroscopy p. 77 4.3 Raman spectroscopy p. 83 4.4 Soils, bone, and the "Baltic shoulder"--Archaeological applications of vibrational spectroscopy p. 85 5 X-ray Techniques and Electron Beam Microanalysis p. 93 5.1 Introduction to X-rays p. 93 5.2 X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry p. 101 5.3 Electron microscopy as an analytical tool p. 109 5.4 X-ray diffraction p. 113 5.5 Other X-ray related techniques p. 116 5.6 A cornucopia of delights - archaeological applications of X-ray analysis p. 118 6 Neutron Activation Analysis p. 123 6.1 Introduction to nuclear structure and the principles of neutron activation analysis p. 123 6.2 Neutron activation analysis in practice p. 128 6.3 Practical alchemy - archaeological applications of NAA p. 130 7 Chromatography p. 137 7.1 Principles of chromatography p. 137 7.2 Classical liquid column chromatography p. 139 7.3 Thin layer chromatography (TLC) p. 139 7.4 Gas chromatography (GC) p. 142 7.5 High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) p. 146 7.6 Sticky messengers from the past - archaeological applications of chromatography p. 147 8 Mass Spectrometry p. 160 8.1 Separation of ions by electric and magnetic fields p. 160 8.2 Light stable isotopes (¿D, ¿13C, ¿15N, ¿18O, and ¿34S) p. 169 8.3 Heavy isotopes (Pb, Sr) - thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) p. 173 8.4 Combined techniques - GC-MS p. 174 8.5 Isotope archaeology - applications of MS in archaeology p. 176 9 Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) p. 195 9.1 Types of ICP analysis p. 195 9.2 Comparison with other techniques p. 200 9.3 Instrument performance p. 202 9.4 Splitting hairs - archaeological applications of ICP-MS p. 208 Part III Some Basic Chemistry for Archaeologists p. 215 10 Atoms, Isotopes, Electron Orbitals, and the Periodic Table p. 217 10.1 The discovery of subatomic particles p. 217 10.2 The Bohr-Rutherford model of the atom p. 227 10.3 Stable and radioactive isotopes p. 230 10.4 The quantum atom p. 238 10.5 The periodic table p. 243 11 Valency, Bonding, and Molecules p. 249 11.1 Atoms and molecules p. 249 11.2 Bonds between atoms p. 253 11.3 Intermolecular bonds p. 258 11.4 Lewis structures and the shapes of molecules p. 260 11.5 Introduction to organic compounds p. 263 11.6 Isomers p. 269 12 The Electromagnetic Spectrum p. 275 12.1 Electromagnetic waves p. 275 12.2 Particle-wave duality p. 279 12.3 Emission lines and the Rydberg equation p. 281 12.4 Absorption of EM radiation by matter - Beer's law p. 286 12.5 The EM spectrum and spectrochemical analysis p. 288 12.6 Synchrotron radiation p. 290 13 Practical Issues in Analytical Chemistry p. 294 13.1 Some basic procedures in analytical chemistry p. 294 13.2 Sample preparation for trace element and residue analysis p. 302 13.3 Standards for calibration p. 306 13.4 Calibration procedures and estimation of errors p. 309 13.5 Quality assurance procedures p. 319 Epilogue p. 322 Appendices p. 326 I Scientific notation p. 326 II Significant figures p. 327 III Seven basic SI units p. 328 IV Physical constants p. 329 V Greek notation p. 330 VI Chemical symbols and isotopes of the elements p. 331 VII Electronic configuration of the elements (to radon, Z=86) p. 335 VIII Some common inorganic and organic sample preparation methods used in archaeology p. 337 IX General safe practice in the laboratory p. 340 X COSHH assessments p. 342 References p. 350 Index.
Description : This comprehensive, fully illustrated Companion answers the need for an in-depth archaeology reference that provides authoritative coverage of this complex and interdisciplinary field. The work brings together the myriad strands and the great temporal and spatial breadth of the field into two thematically organized volumes. In twenty-six authoritative and clearly-written essays, this Companion explores the origins, aims, methods and problems of archaeology. Each essay is written by a scholar of international standing and illustrations complement the text.
Description : Processual archaeologists seek to explain variability in the static archaeological record we observe in the present as a necessary first step toward learning how to learn about the operation of cultural dynamics in the past. The approach is a diverse and productive one that focuses on developing learning strategies. Researchers pursuing processual archaeology have already discovered a great deal about the archaeological record and about past dynamics, and there is a huge potential for building on the foundation laid thus far. The contributors to this volume provide clearly written research articles that are easily accessible to upper-level undergraduates and professional archaeologists. Although the papers do not focus on a single region, time period, or domain of observation (e.g. settlement patterns or lithics or site structure), they are integrated by shared goals for archaeology. This book clearly demonstrates that processual archaeology, far from having been replaced by post-processual archaeology, is becoming more and more powerful as our analytic sophistication and knowledge of the archaeological record grow.
Description : This major study reflects the increasing significance of careful model formation and testing in those academic subjects that are struggling from intuitive and aesthetic obscurantism toward a more disciplined and integrated approach to their fields of study. The twenty-six original contributions represent the carefully selected work of progressive archaeologists around the world, covering the use of models on archaeological material of all kinds and from all periods from Palaeolithic to Medieval. Their common theme is archaeological generalisation by means of explicit model building, testing, modification and reapplication. The contributors seek to show that it is the use of certain models in particular ways that defines archaeology as the practice of one discipline, with a set of general tenets that are as applicable in Peru as in Persia, Australia as Alaska, Sweden as Scotland, on material from the second millennium B.C. to the second millennium A.D. They assert that careful model formulation within archaeology and the cautious exchange and testing of models within and beyond the discipline provides the only route to the formation of the common, internationally valid body of theory which defines a vigorous and coherent discipline and distinguishes it from being a collection of merely regionally applicable special cases.
Description : The 1980s witnessed exciting developments in theoretical writing in Western archaeology. Where previous decades were dominated by the Anglo-American perspective, or "New Archaeology", the recent years showed the European debate grow in confidence and vitality. This book, published in 1991, captures this spirit of debate as contributors from a wide cross-section of countries evaluate the development of the distinctly national and European characteristics of archaeology and assess future directions. Contributors consider an extensive range of ideologies and viewpoints, stressing the fundamentally historical emphasis and social construction of European archaeology. The development of archaeological theory is traced, with specific emphasis on factors which differ from country to country. Ultimately, it argues that the most active response to archaeology is to celebrate theory within a constantly critical mode. A great insight into the development of theory.
Description : "Archaeological Theory, 2nd Edition" is the most current and comprehensive introduction to the field available. Thoroughly revised and updated, this engaging text offers students an ideal entry point to the major concepts and ongoing debates in archaeological research. Exploring the many ways of approaching the human past, from positivism to post-modernism, Johnson reveals the historical origins of different schools of thought and sets theories against the practical problems they are intended to solve, as well as against wider developments in other disciplines. A lucid and concise guide to the most updated thinking and terminology in the field, "Archaeological Theory, 2nd Edition" remains an invaluable resource for students and archaeologists of all stripes.
Description : Paul Courbin puts forward a penetrating and eloquent critique of the New Archeology, a movement of primarily American and British archaeologists that began in the 1960s and continues today. The New Archeologists dropped the "ae" spelling, symbolizing their intent to put the field on a modern and scientific footing. They questioned the bases, the objectives, and consequently the methods of traditional archaeology. Courbin examines this movement, its latent philosophy, its methods and their application, its theories, and its results. He declares that the record shows a devastating failure. The New Archeologists, he contends, may have developed scientific hypotheses, but in most cases they failed to carry out what is necessary to test their theories, thus contradicting the very goals they had set for the discipline. Reevaluating the field as a whole, Courbin asks, What is archaeology? He distinguishes it from such related fields as history and anthropology, emphatically arguing that the primary task of archaeology is what the archaeologist alone can accomplish: the establishment of facts—stratigraphies, time sequences, and identification tools, bones, potsherds, and so on. When archaeological findings lead to historical or anthropological conclusions, as they very often do, archaeologists must be aware that this involves a specific change in their work; they are no longer archaeologists proper. The archaeologist's work, Courbin stresses, is not a humble auxiliary of anthropology or history, but the foundation upon which historians and anthropologists of ancient civilizations will build and without which their theories cannot but collapse. What Is Archaeology? was originally published in French in 1982.
Description : A Companion to Archaeology features essays from 27 of the world’s leading authorities on different types of archaeology that aim to define the field and describe what it means to be an archaeologist. Shows that contemporary archaeology is an astonishingly broad activity, with many contrasting specializations and ways of approaching the material record of past societies. Includes essays by experts in reading the past through art, linguistics, or the built environment, and by professionals who present the past through heritage management and museums. Introduces the reader to a range of archaeologists: those who devote themselves to the philosophy of archaeology, those who see archaeology as politics or anthropology, and those who contend that the essence of the discipline is a hard science.