Description : Capital flight may undermine economic growth and the effectiveness of debt relief and foreign aid. This paper is the first attempt to test whether unsound macroeconomic policies or weak institutions lead to capital flight, using panel data for a large set of developing, emerging market and transition countries. In addition, the paper tests the revolving door hypothesis that links debt accumulation and capital flight, and analyzes the contribution of institutions to several channels in this relationship.
Description : Using available data on the distribution of HIV/AIDS prevalence across population groups for four sub-Saharan African countries and transposing this information to household income and expenditure surveys, we simulate the impact of HIV/AIDS on poverty and inequality. We find that the epidemic lowers average income and increases poverty, and that the jump in poverty is larger than expected from the fall in average income. This disproportionate increase in poverty reflects the large share of the population living on the threshold of poverty and the higher HIV prevalence rates in those segments of the population.
Description : India’s progress in reducing poverty at the national level masks substantial disparity in the incidence of poverty at the state level. This paper provides a description of the trends in interstate differences in rural poverty for the period 1978–97. Key findings are that poverty generally declined in most states over the last twenty years. However, poverty increased during the early years of the 1990s reform period before decline again in the later years. Relative differences in poverty narrowed during the 1980s but widened somewhat during the next decade. The better success rate of some states in reducing poverty in the 1990s was, in part, due to higher growth and lower inflation.
Description : Since 1995, Tanzania has made major progress in economic reform and macroeconomic stabilization, resulting in strong growth and low inflation. This paper reviews Tanzania's growth performance and prospects and assesses the impact of growth on poverty. It finds that growth has been increasingly driven by higher factor productivity and that a continuation of recent policies should allow Tanzania to grow above 5 percent a year over the medium term. Furthermore, it finds that growth since 1995 has resulted in a significant decline of poverty and that prospects are favorable for Tanzania to attain its objectives for reducing income poverty by 2015.
Description : This paper is concerned with economic consequences of unethical governance. A framework is set out, based on principles of Friedrich Nietzsche, that ties poverty and inequality to unethical behavior of the strong toward the weak. The paper contributes to an understanding of why poverty and inequality have remained entrenched in some societies in spite of repeated programs intended to improve living standards. The purpose is to include ethics of governance, and, in particular, unethical behavior of the strong toward the weak, in preconditions for economic development.
Description : This paper discusses key findings of the annual progress report on implementing the National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS)—Nigeria’s Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper. The progress report highlights key accomplishments and shortcomings as well as outstanding issues. Key macroeconomic indicators improved during the last years, reflecting the authorities’ attention to macroeconomic management, an improved policy framework, and favorable external environment. Non-oil growth was robust, and despite unrest in the Niger Delta, oil production could fully fill the OPEC quota. The budgetary oil price rule was an essential anchor of fiscal policy.
Description : In an ideal world, primary education would be universal and publicly financed, and all children would be able to attend school regardless of their parents’ ability or willingness to pay. In many poor countries, however, governments lack either the financial resources or the political will to provide each child with a basic education, despite the benefits that would accrue not only to individuals but to society as a whole. In some of these countries, parents cover part or all of the cost of their children’s education. This paper explores the pros and cons of user payments.
Description : The Web edition of the IMF Survey is updated several times a week, and contains a wealth of articles about topical policy and economic issues in the news. Access the latest IMF research, read interviews, and listen to podcasts given by top IMF economists on important issues in the global economy. www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/survey/so/home.aspx
Description : The Annual Report 2007 to the Board of Governors reviews the IMF's activities and policies during the financial year (May 1, 2006, through April 30, 2007). This year's Report has been streamlined and translated into three more languages than in the past: Arabic, Japanese, and Russian. Besides an Overview, the chapters cover promoting financial and macroeconomic stability and growth through surveillance; program support; capacity building; technical assistance and training; and the IMF's governance, organization, and finances. The full financial statements for the year and other appendixes are provided on a CD-ROM.
Description : Take a fresh look at the Bible while you experience a new translation. The Common English Bible is relevant, readable, and reliable. The result is a new version that the typical reader or worshipper is able to understand. 115 leading biblical scholars from 22 faith traditions and 77 reading specialists in 13 denominations worked on this translation. Contains Apocrypha books.