Description : Nothing is to be gained after a war by the punishment of the vanquished by the victors, even if the vanquished have been to blame for the war itself. It now seems more probable than ever that for victors to assert after a war the 'war guilt' of the vanquished serves but to disguise the real sources of international disturbance. Possibly it is because the western victors in 1919 did not recognize the moral basis of international relations that war returned to Europe and to the world in 1939. Possibly it is because the western victors again in 1945 did not recognize the moral basis of those relations that the world was treated to the spectacle of victors' justice, a.k.a. 'the Nuremberg Trial', and one more great war had ended without leading men's feet into the way of peace.
Description : The klieg-lighted Tokyo Trial began on May 3, 1946, and ended on November 4, 1948, a majority of the eleven judges from the victorious Allies finding the twenty-five surviving defendants, Japanese military and state leaders, guilty of most, if not all, of the charges. As at Nuremberg, the charges included for the first time "crimes against peace" and "crimes against humanity," as well as conventional war crimes. In a polemical account, Richard Minear reviews the background, proceedings, and judgment of the Tokyo Trial from its Charter and simultaneous Nuremberg "precedent" to its effects today. Mr. Minear looks at the Trial from the aspects of international law, of legal process, and of history. With compelling force, he discusses the motives of the Nuremberg and Tokyo proponents, the Trial's prejudged course—its choice of judges, procedures, decisions, and omissions—General MacArthur's review of the verdict, the criticisms of the three dissenting judges, and the dangers inherent in such an international, political trial. His systematic, partisan treatment pulls together evidence American lawyers and liberals have long suspected, feared, and dismissed from their minds. Contents: Preface. I. Introduction. II. The Tokyo Trial. III. Problems of International Law. IV. Problems of Legal Process. V. Problems of History. VI. After the Trial. Appendices. Originally published in 1971. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
Description : The author argues that contemporary international law functions as a two-track system: a made-to-measure law for the dominant countries and their allies, on the one hand, and a punitive regime for the losers and the disadvantaged, on the other
Description : The aim of this new collection of essays is to engage in analysis beyond the familiar victor’s justice critiques. The editors have drawn on authors from across the world — including Australia, Japan, China, France, Korea, New Zealand and the United Kingdom — with expertise in the fields of international humanitarian law, international criminal law, Japanese studies, modern Japanese history, and the use of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons. The diverse backgrounds of the individual authors allow the editors to present essays which provide detailed and original analyses of the Tokyo Trial from legal, philosophical and historical perspectives.
Description : Since the end of the Cold War there has been an explosion of international courts and tribunals that sit apart from domestic legal systems, yet they are often woefully inadequate for their stated purposes. This book explores common problems across these courts, and applies a constructivist theory of international relations to explain their operation. Often established by states as signals of their commitment to moral values and political ideology, once created these courts find themselves trapped between the interests of the Great Powers. Some endure irrelevance, their judgements ignored. Yet more are unusably slow. Still others exhibit demonstrable political bias. Their common failings suggest that international law is not nearly as robust as it claims. The author skilfully shows that international courts are a species of international organisation, and share the same challenges of bureaucracy and unaccountability as have plagued the United Nations. Mirages of International Justice will be of particular interest to scholars and practitioners interested in critiques of the European Court of Human Rights, the World Trade Organisation, investment treaty arbitration, the EU courts, the international criminal courts, the International Court of Justice and public international law in general. Students of international relations and advocates for reform of international organisations will also learn much from this insightful study.
Description : International criminal justice has undergone rapid recent development. Since the establishment of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) in 1993, and the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) in the following year, the field has changed beyond recognition. The traditional immunity of presidents or heads of government, prime ministers, and other functionaries acting in an official capacity no longer prevails; the doctrine of superior orders is inapplicable except, where appropriate, as in mitigation; and the gap between international armed conflict and non-international armed conflict has closed. More generally, the bridge has been crossed between the irresponsibility of the state and the criminal responsibility of the individual. As a result, the traditional impunity of the state has practically gone. This book, by one of the former judges of the ICTY, ICTR, and the International Court of Justice, assesses some of the workings of the ICTY that have shaped these developments. In it, Judge Shahabuddeen provides an insightful overview of the nature of this criminal court, established on behalf of the whole of the international community. He reflects on its transformation into one of the leading fora for the growth of international criminal law first-hand, offering a unique perspective on the challenges it has faced. Judge Shahabuddeen's experience in international criminal justice makes this volume essential reading for those interested in, or working with, international criminal law.
Description : Advocates of the ‘Nuremberg legacy’ emphasize the positive impact of the individualization of responsibility and the establishment of an historical record through judicial procedures for ‘war crimes’. This legacy has been cited in the context of the establishment and operation of the UN ad hoc International Criminal Tribunals in the 1990s, as well as for the International Criminal Court. The problem with this legacy, however, is that it is based solely on the experience of West Germany. Furthermore, the effect of the procedure on post-conflict society has not been empirically examined. This book does this by analyzing the Tokyo Trial, the other International Military Tribunal established after the Second World War, and its impact on post-war Japan. Madoka Futamura examines the short- and long-term impact of the International Military Tribunal for the Far East (the Tokyo Trial), on post-war Japan, in order to improve the understanding of and strategy for ongoing international war crimes tribunals. War Crimes Tribunals and Transitional Justice will be of much interest to students of war crimes, international law, transitional justice and international relations in general.
Description : Among the international responses to the political violence that erupted in Côte d’Ivoire in the wake of the 2010-11 electoral conflict was a swift judicial intervention by the International Criminal Court (ICC). Central to the mission of the ICC is to prevent the future commission of those grave crimes within its jurisdiction and ending the impunity of those that have perpetrated such crimes. The ICC began its prosecution by targeting crimes committed by one side of the conflict – that of ousted Ivorian President Laurent Gbagbo – while refraining from prosecuting the crimes committed by those loyal to the victorious President Alassanne Ouattara. The report develops a theory and predicts both positive and negative effects of one-sided prosecutions. After providing historical context, the report tests the theory’s predictions from evidence of the subsequent criminally violent behavior committed by both sides after the ICC transferred Gbagbo to the ICC in October 2011. Amid the difficulties in ascertaining the motives for such behavior, the report concludes that Gbagbo loyalists were not deterred from committing more violent crimes, and that Ouattara loyalists continued to commit violent crimes with impunity. An answer to the question of whether or not Gbagbo loyalists retaliated because of the ICC’s actions remains elusive. However, the report points to potential research that could answer that question and generate new scholarship on the impact of the ICC’s one-sided prosecutions in Côte d’Ivoire.
Description : As international criminal justice has grown in prominence, so have the challenges facing it. This book discusses the unresolved questions and dilemmas confronted by international war crimes courts. These include the controversies surrounding prosecutorial policy, the tension between peace and justice, and accusations of victor's justice.