Description : This report is based on findings from newly-declassified decades-old Army and CIA records released under the Nazi War Crimes Disclosure Act of 1998. These records were processed and reviewed by the National Archives-led Nazi War Crimes and Japanese Imperial Government Records Interagency Working Group. The report highlights materials opened under the Act, in addition to records that were previously opened but had not been mined by historians and researchers, including records from the Office of Strategic Services (a CIA predecessor), dossiers of the Army Staff's Intelligence Records of the Investigative Records Repository, State Dept. records, and files of the Navy Judge Advocate General. This is a print on demand report.
Description : Drawing heavily on recently declassified sources, this examination of German wartime intelligence services traces the logistical and strategic expansion of the Third Reich's foreign covert operations in World War II. Beginning with the changes introduced to counteract institutional neglect, the author describes attempts to penetrate both neutral and adversarial nations outside territories occupied by the Wehrmacht. The Nazis created covert teams for counterintelligence and penetrating border defenses. Strategies were formed for assembling saboteur divisions in North and South America, while data were gathered on industrial installations to target. American fascist movements of the 1930s are discussed, along with Nazi sabotage missions in the United States and intelligence penetrations and domestic collusion in Latin America.
Description : Americans are familiar with prisoner of war narratives that detail Allied soldiers' treatment at the hands of Germans in World War II: popular books and movies like The Great Escape and Stalag 17 have offered graphic and award-winning depictions of the American POW experience in Nazi camps. Less is known, however, about the Germans captured and held in captivity on U.S. soil during the war. In Hitler's Generals in America, Derek R. Mallett examines the evolution of the relationship between American officials and the Wehrmacht general officers they held as prisoners of war in the United States between 1943 and 1946. During the early years of the war, British officers spied on the German officers in their custody, housing them in elegant estates separate from enlisted soldiers, providing them with servants and cooks, and sometimes becoming their confidants in order to obtain intelligence. The Americans, on the other hand, lacked the class awareness shared by British and German officers. They ignored their German general officer prisoners, refusing them any special treatment. By the end of the war, however, the United States had begun to envision itself as a world power rather than one of several allies providing aid during wartime. Mallett demonstrates how a growing admiration for the German officers' prowess and military traditions, coupled with postwar anxiety about Soviet intentions, drove Washington to collaborate with many Wehrmacht general officers. Drawing on newly available sources, this intriguing book vividly demonstrates how Americans undertook the complex process of reconceptualizing Germans -- even Nazi generals -- as allies against what they perceived as their new enemy, the Soviet Union.
Description : Reviewing recently declassified CIA documents, this book provides a balanced but critical discussion of the contribution of American intelligence officials to the Nuremberg war crimes trials. Giving new details of how senior Nazi war criminals, such as SS General Karl Wolff, were provided with effective immunity deals, partly as a reward for their wartime cooperation with US intelligence officials, including Allen Dulles, former CIA Director, the author also discusses the role of such officials in mobilizing the unique resources of a modern intelligence agency to provide important trial testimony and vital documentary evidence. Nazi War Crimes, US Intelligence and Selective Prosecution at Nuremberg argues that both war crimes prosecutors and intelligence officials can engage in mutually beneficial collaborations, but that both sides need to recognize and appreciate the problems that may arise from the fact that these institutions are required to operate according to different, and in some cases contradictory, agendas. This topical book gives those studying, or with interests in, international law, criminal law and history an insight into the debates surrounding international war crimes, within the context of the Nuremberg war crimes trials.
Description : The explosive story of America's secret post-WWII science programs, from the author of the New York Times bestseller Area 51 In the chaos following World War II, the U.S. government faced many difficult decisions, including what to do with the Third Reich's scientific minds. These were the brains behind the Nazis' once-indomitable war machine. So began Operation Paperclip, a decades-long, covert project to bring Hitler's scientists and their families to the United States. Many of these men were accused of war crimes, and others had stood trial at Nuremberg; one was convicted of mass murder and slavery. They were also directly responsible for major advances in rocketry, medical treatments, and the U.S. space program. Was Operation Paperclip a moral outrage, or did it help America win the Cold War? Drawing on exclusive interviews with dozens of Paperclip family members, colleagues, and interrogators, and with access to German archival documents (including previously unseen papers made available by direct descendants of the Third Reich's ranking members), files obtained through the Freedom of Information Act, and dossiers discovered in government archives and at Harvard University, Annie Jacobsen follows more than a dozen German scientists through their postwar lives and into a startling, complex, nefarious, and jealously guarded government secret of the twentieth century. In this definitive, controversial look at one of America's most strategic, and disturbing, government programs, Jacobsen shows just how dark government can get in the name of national security.
Description : While the United States has had some kind of intelligence capability throughout its history, its intelligence apparatus is young, dating only to the period immediately after World War II. Yet, in that short a time, it has undergone enormous changes—from the labor-intensive espionage and covert action establishment of the 1950s to a modern enterprise that relies heavily on electronic data, technology, satellites, airborne collection platforms, and unmanned aerial vehicles, to name a few. This second edition covers the history of United States intelligence, and includes several key features: Chronology Introductory essay Appendixes Bibliography Over 600 cross-referenced entries on key events, issues, people, operations, laws, regulations This book is an excellent access point for members of the intelligence community; students, scholars, and historians; legal experts; and general readers wanting to know more about the history of U.S. intelligence.
Description : The story of how Nazi war criminals escaped from justice by fleeing through the Tyrolean Alps to Italian seaports at the end of the Second World War and the role played by the Red Cross, the Vatican, and the Secret Services in smuggling them away from prosecution in Europe to a new life in South America.
Description : This book follows the story of suspected Nazi war criminals in the United States and analyzes their supposed crimes during World War II, their entry into the United States as war refugees in the 1940s and 1950s, and their prosecution in the 1970s and beyond by the U.S. government, specifically by the Office of Special Investigation (OSI). In particular, this book explains why and how such individuals entered the United States, why it took so long to locate and apprehend them, how the OSI was founded, and how the OSI has tried to bring them to justice. This study constitutes a thorough account of 150 suspects and examines how the search for them connects to larger developments in postwar U.S. history. In this latter regard, one major theme includes the role Holocaust memory played in the aforementioned developments. This account adds significantly to the historiographical debate about when and how the Holocaust found its way into American Jewish and also general American consciousness. In general, these suspected Nazi war criminals could come to the United States largely undetected during the early Cold War. In this atmosphere, they morphed from Nazi collaborators to ardent anti-Communists and, outside of some big fish, not even within the Jewish community was their role in the Holocaust much discussed. Only with the Eichmann trial in the early 1960s did interest in other Holocaust perpetrators increase, culminating in the founding of the OSI in the late 1970s. The manuscript makes use, among other documents, of declassified sources from the CIA and FBI, little used trial accounts, and hard to locate OSI records.
Description : This international history uncovers an American security program in which Washington reached into fifteen Latin American countries to seize more than 4,000 German expatriates and intern them in the Texas desert. The crowd of Nazi Party members, antifascist exiles, and even Jewish refugees were lumped together in camps riven by strife. The book, first published in 2003, examines the evolution of governmental policy, its impact on individuals and emigrant communities, and the ideological assumptions that blinded officials in both Washington and Berlin to Latin American realities. Franklin Roosevelt's vaunted Good Neighbor policy was a victim of this effort to force reluctant Latin American governments to hand over their German residents, while the operation ruined an opportunity to rescue victims of the Holocaust. This study makes a very contemporary argument: that security measures based on group affiliation rather than individual actions are as unjust and ineffective in foreign policy as they are in law enforcement.
Description : This book exposes how US plutocrats launched Hitler, then recouped Nazi assets to lay the post-war foundations of a modern police state. Fascists won WWII because they ran both sides. Lays bare the tenacious roots of US fascism from robber baron days to Reichstag fire to the WTC atrocity and "Homeland Security", with a blow-by-blow account of the fascist take-over of America's media.
Description : A global history of U.S. nuclear espionage traces the growth of nuclear activities in an increasing number of nations while indicating what the United States historically believed about each country's laboratories, test sites, and decision-making councils, in an account that includes coverage of the mysterious Vela incident and current efforts to uncover nuclear secrets in Iran and North Korea. Reprint.
Description : For four years, the people of Crete suffered savage punitive reprisals for their heroic resistance to the barbaric Nazi invaders. Thousands died at the execution wall or from starvation and imprisonment. But their freedom-loving spirit would not let them yield to the German conqueror. Instead, with the help of the British and American military personnel of the SOE and the OSS, they banded together to form a resistance movement against the Nazis that set an example for all the conquered people of Europe to follow. This is a story of the stark reality of human endeavor and sacrifice, marked by deeds of heroism of which little has been said and much less written.
Description : "Engrossing."—Wall Street Journal A global history of U.S. nuclear espionage from its World War II origins to today's threats from rogue states. For fifty years, the United States has monitored friends and foes who seek to develop the ultimate weapon. Since 1952 the nuclear club has grown to at least eight nations, while others are making serious attempts to join. Each chapter chronologically focuses on the nuclear activities of one or more countries, intermingling what the United States believed was happening with accounts of what actually occurred in each country's laboratories, test sites, and decision-making councils. Jeffrey T. Richelson weaves recently declassified documents into his interviews with the scientists and spies involved in the nuclear espionage. The book reveals new information about U.S. intelligence work on the Soviet/Russian, French, Chinese, Indian, Israeli, and South African nuclear programs; on the attempts to solve the mysterious Vela Incident; and on current efforts to uncover the nuclear secrets of Iran and North Korea. The book also includes spy satellite photographs never before extracted from the national archives.The updated paperback edition includes analysis of the diplomatic maneuvering and intelligence activities that have taken place over the last year in the continued attempt to halt Iran's quest for nuclear weapons.
Description : "The shocking story of how America became one of the world's safest postwar havens for Nazis. Until recently, historians believed America gave asylum only to key Nazi scientists after World War II, along with some less famous perpetrators who managed to sneak in and who eventually were exposed by Nazi hunters. But the truth is much worse, and has been covered up for decades: the CIA and FBI brought thousands of perpetrators to America as possible assets against their new Cold War enemies. When the Justice Department finally investigated and learned the truth, the results were classified and buried. Using the dramatic story of one former perpetrator who settled in New Jersey, conned the CIA into hiring him, and begged for the agency's support when his wartime identity emerged, Eric Lichtblau tells the full, shocking story of how America became a refuge for hundreds of postwar Nazis"--
Description : A Compilation Of Articles From Various Sources-Relating To The Success And Failures Of Cia In Field Of Intelligence. The Study Is Divided Under 60 Headings Relating To This Sensitive Subject.
Description : The true story of how US intelligence organizations employed Nazi war criminals in clandestine warfare and propaganda against the USSR, anticolonial revolutionaries, and progressive movements worldwide that were claimed to be Soviet pawns; includes a new, previously suppressed introduction by the author on the CIA’s declassification of Nazi-related records Even before the final shots of World War II were fired, another war began—a cold war that pitted the United States against its former ally, the Soviet Union. As the Soviets consolidated power in Eastern Europe, the CIA scrambled to gain the upper hand against new enemies worldwide. To this end, senior officials at the CIA, National Security Council, and other elements of the emerging US national security state turned to thousands of former Nazis, Waffen Secret Service, and Nazi collaborators for propaganda, psychological warfare, and military operations. Many new recruits were clearly responsible for the deaths of countless innocents as part of Adolph Hitler’s “Final Solution,” yet were whitewashed and claimed to be valuable intelligence assets. Unrepentant mass murderers were secretly accepted into the American fold, their crimes forgotten and forgiven with the willing complicity of the US government. Blowback is the first thorough, scholarly study of the US government’s extensive recruitment of Nazis and fascist collaborators right after the war. Although others have approached the topic since, Simpson’s book remains the essential starting point. The author demonstrates how this secret policy of collaboration only served to intensify the Cold War and has had lasting detrimental effects on the American government and society that endure to this day.
Description : Motivated by moral outrage, a small number of individuals in America today is vigorously protesting the presence here of accused Nazi war criminals and collaborators. The Outraged Conscience documents their individual efforts. A vital addition to the literature on the Holocaust, this book looks closely at the separate activities of these dedicated seekers of justice. It reveals that they are a diverse lot, each with different reasons for total commitment to the issue. The Outraged Conscience also probes more general moral questions: Can there be valid justification for the United States government allowing Nazi war criminals to enter the country and, in some cases, employing them? Is there a satisfactory explanation for the years of inaction by government officials, major American Jewish organizations, veteran groups, and the news media on this practice? The lives, stories, and reasons for involvement of these justice seekers are part of modern American history. This book puts their stories on the record.
Description : Fully revised and expanded, this stirring account reveals how the U.S. government permitted the illegal entry of Nazis into North America in the years following World War II. This extraordinary investigation exposes the secret section of the State Department that began, starting in 1948 and unbeknownst to Congress and the public until recently, to hire members of the puppet wartime government of Byelorussia—a region of the Soviet Union occupied by Nazi Germany. A former Justice Department investigator uncovered this stunning story in the files of several government agencies, and it is now available with a chapter previously banned from release by authorities and a foreword and afterword with recently declassified materials.
Description : Facts101 is your complete guide to Hitler and Nazi Germany. In this book, you will learn topics such as THE GROWTH AND VICTORY OF NAZISM 1924-1934, THE NAZI STATE 1933-1939, THE DICTATOR, and CULTURE AND SOCIETY IN NAZI GERMANY plus much more. With key features such as key terms, people and places, Facts101 gives you all the information you need to prepare for your next exam. Our practice tests are specific to the textbook and we have designed tools to make the most of your limited study time.
Description : Nazis after Hitler traces the histories of thirty "typical" perpetrators of the Holocaust—some well known, some obscure—who survived World War II. Donald M. McKale reveals the shocking reality that the perpetrators were only rarely, if ever, tried and punished for their crimes, and nearly all alleged their innocence in Germany's extermination of nearly six million European Jews during the war, providing fodder for postwar Holocaust deniers. Written in a compelling narrative style, Nazis after Hitler is the first to provide an overview of the lives of Nazis who survived the war, the vast majority of whom escaped justice. McKale provides a unique and accessible synthesis of the extensive research on the Holocaust and Nazi war criminals that will be invaluable for all readers interested in World War II.
Description : In this classic text, Peter Maguire follows America's legal relationship with war, both before and after the Nuremberg trials of the 1940s. Maguire argues that the precedents set by the trials were nothing less than revolutionary, and he traces the development of these new attitudes throughout American history. The text has been revised throughout, with a new preface and postscript discussing the George W. Bush administration's attempt to rewrite the laws of war after 9/11. Maguire connects these efforts to the decline in American power and reputation. Praise for the previous edition: "[An] intriguing historical analysis."& mdash Harvard Law Review "Outstanding... impressive... a terrific book."& mdash; American Historical Review "A five-star accomplishment that will intrigue the reader and prove that, in history, truth is often more fascinating than fiction."& mdash;H. W. William Caming, former Nuremberg prosecutor "Perceptive."& mdash; Journal of American History "An important and fascinating study, marked by impressive research and moral passion."& mdash;Ronald Steel, University of Southern California "A 'must read' for all those interested in international criminal law, war crimes, and war crime trials."& mdash;J. C. Watkins Jr., University of Alabama "A sobering exploration of the hypocrisy and double standards that shape the laws of war. Maguire reveals the conflict between American ideology and American imperialism, the Faustian compromises made by our leaders during their elusive quest for justice."& mdash;Iris Chang, author of The Rape of Nanking "A pioneering account.... Law and War goes back to the middle of the nineteenth century to trace the history of modern war crimes, their shock value, and the efforts made to bring their perpetrators to account."& mdash;Thomas Keenan, Bardian