Description : The term "tropism" refers to the growth characteristics exercised by organisms under the influence of external forces. Contextualizing his argument in biology, aesthetics and literature, Ton Verstegen applies this figure to those architectures in which movement and dynamics play a central role. Verstegen argues that spatial animation always entails metaphoric or conceptual animation, providing examples from a variety of architects and demonstrating how computer technologies in design have affected the possibilities of movement in architecture.
Description : I commend you to read this book. The book is well written and illustrated, the author using topic boxes to present information which he finds particularly intriguingthe readership of the book will range from undergraduates and postgraduates studying plant science to conscientious naturalists wishing to find out more about how plants grow. - The Times Higher Education Supplement
Description : Tropisms, the defined vectorial stimuli, such as gravity, light, touch, humidity gradients, ions, oxygen, and temperature, which provide guidance for plant organ growth, is a rapidly growing and changing field. The last few years have witnessed a true renaissance in the analysis of tropisms. As such the conception of tropisms has changed from being seen as a group of simple laboratory curiosities to their recognition as important tools/phenotypes with which to decipher basic cell biological processes that are essential to plant growth and development. Plant Tropisms will provide a comprehensive, yet integrated volume of the current state of knowledge on the molecular and cell biological processes that govern plant tropisms.
Description : To further understand the role of the cytoskeleton in gravitropism, weperformed orientation and curvature studies on seedlings of distorted1 (dis1) anddistorted2 (dis2) mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana which are defective in the ARP(actin related protein) 2/3 complex. Recently, ARP 2/3 has been studied for itseffects on cell morphology in trichomes. DISTORTED mutants are phenotypicallycharacterized by defects in trichome branching, vesicle localization, and F-actinorganization. Because ARP 2/3 is expressed throughout all tissues, wehypothesized a presence in gravisensing cells of hypocotyls and roots. We foundthat DIS1 enhanced gravitropism in roots of dark-grown seedlings, while DIS2attenuated gravitropism in roots grown in the light. We also found that both DIS1and DIS2 attenuated phototropism in hypocotyls grown in the dark, while inroots, DIS1 attenuated phototropism. This suggests a role for ARP 2/3 incytoskeletal organization and these tropistic signaling pathways.