Description : Sixty years have passed since the Nuremberg trials of the major Nazi war criminals, but that event still stands as the foundation of international justice. Nuremberg not only ignited a revolution in international law but affected domestic law as well with its simple but profound priniciple that every individual accused of crime is entitled to a full and fair hearing.This book reveals how the precedents set at Nuremberg have affected human rights, race relations, medical practice, big business and even Germany's post-war development. It also examines the Nuremberg trials' influence on the modern war crimes trials of tyrants like Slobodan Milosevic and Saddam Hussein.
Description : Discusses the Nuremberg Nazi war crimes trial in which Nazi leaders, including Hermann Goering, Rudolf Hess, and Wilhelm Keitel, were tried for their roles in the Holocaust.
Description : *Includes pictures *Includes quotes by the defendants, prosecutors, judges, and more *Includes footnotes and a bibliography for further reading "There were, I suppose, three possible courses: to let the atrocities which had been committed go unpunished; to put the perpetrators to death or punish them by executive action; or to try them. Which was it to be? Was it possible to let such atrocities go unpunished? Could France, could Russia, could Holland, Belgium, Norway, Czechoslovakia, Poland or Yugoslavia be expected to consent to such a course? ... It will be remembered that after the first world war alleged criminals were handed over to be tried by Germany, and what a farce that was! The majority got off and such sentences as were inflicted were derisory and were soon remitted." - Baron Geoffrey Lawrence, December 1946 At the end of World War II, the world was faced with some sobering statistics. With over 50,000,000 deaths when both military and civilian losses had been accounted for, the death toll was devastating, and for many of those who lived in countries that had been ravaged by war, hunger and financial strain had become parts of daily life. Furthermore, beyond the physical damage was the growing knowledge of the atrocities that had been committed both before and during the war. In fact, the Allies were discussing how to dole out justice for Axis war crimes as early as 1943, and once the war was over, it was time for the nations to turn their attention on the judgment of the German leadership and its role in the death, destruction, and demoralization they had brought to the world. This judgment took place at the most famous trials of the 20th century: the Nuremberg Trials. The Nuremberg Trials were a series of 13 proceedings held under the authority of the International Military Tribunal between November 1945 and June 1948, but the trial most associated with Nuremberg is the first trial, in which eight judges appointed by Britain, the United States, the Soviet Union, and France deliberated over the guilt or innocence of 22 men identified as significant leaders of the Nazi cause. This trial took place between November 20, 1945 and August 31, 1946. Later trials included other Germans who held what were considered to be position of power- doctors, businessman, or lower-level functionaries whose positions of influence gave them, in the eyes of the Allies, increased responsibility for their actions. Though almost every person convicted in the 13 Nuremberg Trials was male, there was also a female physician convicted at the doctors' trial. In all, the Nuremberg trials numbered 489 separate hearings, and despite taking place nearly 70 years ago, the impact of the trials can still be felt today. As Harold Marcuse, author and associate professor of history at the University of California, notes, the trials were held for "the most heinous perpetrators of the most despicable crimes, as evidenced by the high proportion of guilty verdicts and the severity of the sentences....a total [over all 13 trials] of 1,672 people were tried and 1,416 found guilty as charged." While some were tried in absentia and never brought to justice, the Nuremberg trials were largely viewed as bringing a sense of closure to the war, and they have been dramatized in numerous movies and documentaries ever since. The Nuremberg Trials: The History and Legacy of World War II's Famous War Crimes Trials chronicles the history of the trials from their conception to their completion. Along with pictures of important people, places, and events, you will learn about the Nuremberg trials like never before, in no time at all.
Description : Reviewing recently declassified CIA documents, this book provides a balanced but critical discussion of the contribution of American intelligence officials to the Nuremberg war crimes trials. Giving new details of how senior Nazi war criminals, such as SS General Karl Wolff, were provided with effective immunity deals, partly as a reward for their wartime cooperation with US intelligence officials, including Allen Dulles, former CIA Director, the author also discusses the role of such officials in mobilizing the unique resources of a modern intelligence agency to provide important trial testimony and vital documentary evidence. Nazi War Crimes, US Intelligence and Selective Prosecution at Nuremberg argues that both war crimes prosecutors and intelligence officials can engage in mutually beneficial collaborations, but that both sides need to recognize and appreciate the problems that may arise from the fact that these institutions are required to operate according to different, and in some cases contradictory, agendas. This topical book gives those studying, or with interests in, international law, criminal law and history an insight into the debates surrounding international war crimes, within the context of the Nuremberg war crimes trials.
Description : Towards the close of World War II, world leaders had to address the question of what to do with alleged war criminals. In 1945, an International Military Tribunal (IMT) was established to see that war criminals would face justice. This collection of essays brings together scholars from all over the world to explore the short-term effects of the IMT at Nuremberg and its present day impact on the International Criminal Court. The essays include analyses of Soviet investigations into Nazi war crimes during the war, examinations of the German public's reactions to the Nuremberg Trials, and the immediate effect the IMT had on the Tokyo and Austrian Trials post-1945. Other essays examine changes in the Alien Tort Statute and human rights litigation, the ethics of selective justice, the obstacles facing hybrid tribunals, and how the U.S. legal and constitutional system is often in conflict with the International Criminal Court. Each essay shows the long-standing legacy of the Nuremberg Trials and how the IMT has impacted the field of international law.
Description : These essays are organised into four sections, dealing with the history of war crime trials from Weimar Germany to just after World War II, the sometimes diverging Allied attempts to come to terms with the Nazi concentration camp system, the ability of postwar societies to confront war crimes of the past and the legacy of war crime trials.
Description : This book offers a radically new and definitive reappraisal of Allied responses to Nazi human experiments and the origins of informed consent. It places the victims and Allied Medical Intelligence officers at centre stage, while providing a full reconstruction of policies on war crimes and trials related to Nazi medical atrocities and genocide.
Description : The Nuremberg War Crimes Trials began on 20 November 1945 and ended on 13 April 1949. At the first trial, twenty-four leading Nazis were indicted. This book will include extracts from the trial transcripts and testimony including dramatic cross-examinations as the accused come face to face with their accusers as well as contemporary news reports and extracts from interviews with the accused conducted by American psychologist Leon Goldensohn while they were awaiting trial. Anyone wishing to understand the nature of evil can do no better than look within the pages of this book. The Nazis were a vile collection of criminals, thugs, misfits, sadists, and petty bureaucrats bound together only by their philosophy of hate and their love of plunder. The stronger their stranglehold on power, the more monstrous their crimes. But when Hitler's thousand-year Reich collapsed after twelve years of increasing repression, how were those responsible to be punished? Hitler, Himmler and Goebbels took their own lives to evade justice, but that still left the unrepentant Hermann Goering, Albert Speer, Hitler's one-time Deputy Fuhrer Rudolph Hess and many other prominent Nazis to be brought before the Allied courts. This is the story of the Nuremberg Trials—the most important criminal hearings ever held, which established the principle that individuals will always be held responsible for their actions under international law, and which brought closure to World War II, allowing the reconstrution of Europe to begin.
Description : This volume examines the depiction of the Holocaust and the Nazi era by means of German and Israeli newspapers reporting about four Nazi trials. The study consists of a comprehensive and systematic quantitative content analysis of the press coverage of four trials that were held in Germany and in Israel over the course of 43 years, from 1945 to 1988. The main focus of the study is on how the Holocaust was depicted in newspapers in the two countries as they reported on each of the trials. Even though the present study was conducted more than 50 years after the end of World War II, it provides a broad overview of an entire epoch in which Nazi war crime trials were conducted.
Description : The Nuremberg Trial was a landmark in the development of international law; its influence continues to shape our understanding of international criminal justice. This volume presents the most important essays examining the trial from legal, political, historical, and philosophical perspectives. Together, the perspectives provide an overview of the Trial that is invaluable to understanding the significance of the Nuremberg Trial to modern international law andpolitics.
Description : Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Pages: 146. Chapters: Nuremberg Trials, Lidice, Oradour-sur-Glane, Babi Yar, Malmedy massacre, Porajmos, Putten, War crimes of the Wehrmacht, Erich von Manstein, Massacre of the Acqui Division, German war crimes, List of Axis personnel indicted for war crimes, Forced labour under German rule during World War II, Le Paradis massacre, OST-Arbeiter, Lagerordnung, Concentration Camps Inspectorate, Malmedy massacre trial, Hubert Lanz, The March, Action 14f13, Commando Order, Ardeatine massacre, 4th Panzer Division, 17th Infantry Division, Artur Phleps, Hunger Plan, Postenpflicht, Holocaust of Viannos, Holocaust of Kedros, M hlviertler Hasenjagd, Kragujevac massacre, Maill massacre, Wilhelm List, Polish decrees, Khatyn massacre, Burton C. Andrus, Ninth Fort massacres of November 1941, August Schmidthuber, Massacre of Kondomari, Sonderaktion 1005, German submarine U-852, Gardelegen, German camp brothels in World War II, Paramythia executions, Vinkt Massacre, Sant'Anna di Stazzema massacre, J rgen Wagner, Razing of Kandanos, Distomo massacre, Wehrmachtsausstellung, Central Office of the State Justice Administrations for the Investigation of National Socialist Crimes, Friedrich Schubert, Celler Hasenjagd, Walter Kuntze, Yantarny, Marzabotto massacre, Massacre of Kalavryta, Armadio della vergogna, Charitable Ambulance, Treblinka trials, Tulle murders, Alexander Andrae, Dzyatlava massacre, Ernst Dehner, Wormhoudt massacre, Maill, Indre-et-Loire, Italian military internees, Telav g, Erich Naumann, Zivilarbeiter, Deutsch Sch tzen massacre, Kobylisy Shooting Range, Le ky, Nazi crimes in Warmia, Kommeno, Ascq massacre, Mesovouno massacre, Bunker Tragedy, Robert-Espagne, German war crimes during the Battle of Moscow, Massacre in Trhov Kamenice, Kugel-erlass, Drakeia massacre, Dulag 183, Frankolovo crime, Kortelisy, Boves massacre. Excerpt: War crim...
Description : When the Allies decided to try German war criminals at the end of World War II they were attempting not only to punish the guilty but also to create a record of what had happened in Europe. This ground-breaking new study shows how Britain and the United States went about inscribing the history of Nazi Germany and the effect their trial and occupation policies had on both long and short term 'memory' in Germany and Britain. Donald Bloxham here examines the actions and trials of German soldiers and policemen, the use of legal evidence, the refractory functions of the courtroom, and Allied political and cultural preconceptions of both 'Germanism' and of German criminality. His evidence shows conclusively that the trials were a failure: the greatest of all 'crimes against humanity' - the 'final solution of the Jewish question' - was largely written out of history in the post-war era and the trials failed to transmit the breadth of German criminality. Finally, with reference to the historiography of the Holocaust, Genocide on Trial illuminates the function of the trials in perpetuating misleading generalizations about the course of the Holocaust and the nature of Nazism.
Description : From the author of Hiding in the Spotlight, the story of the Kharkov trials, forgotten by history, which sought justice for the thousands killed the Ukraine, a place also overlooked in the annals of the Holocaust When one thinks of the Holocaust, we think of Auschwitz, Dachau; and when we think of justice for this terrible chapter in history, we think of Nuremberg. Not of Russia or the Ukraine, and certainly not of a city called Kharkov. But in reality, the first war-crimes trial against the Nazis was in this idyllic, peaceful Ukrainian city, which is fitting, because it is also where the Holocaust actually began.Eighteen months before the end of World War II—two full years before the opening statement by the prosecution at Nuremberg—three Nazi officers and a Ukrainian collaborator were tried and convicted of war crimes and hanged in Kharkov’s public square. The trial is symbolic of the larger omission of the Ukraine from the popular history of the Holocaust—another deep irony, as most of the first of the six million perished in the Ukraine long before Hitler and his lieutenant seven decided on the formalities of the Final Solution.
Description : The essays discuss the philosophical and political implications of war crimes jurisprudence as well as the surprisingly rich and unexpected historical record of previous war crimes trials. Issues also covered are legislative and judicial approaches to war crimes in Europe, Israel, Australia and North America. This publication contains an indispensable new material and careful legal analysis. .
Description : When the ashes had settled after World War II and the Allies convened an international war crimes trial in Nuremberg, a psychiatrist, Douglas Kelley, and a psychologist, Gustave Gilbert, tried to fathom the psychology of the Nazi leaders, using extensive psychiatric interviews, IQ tests, and Rorschach inkblot tests. Never before or since has there been such a detailed study of governmental leaders who orchestrated mass killings. Before the war crimes trial began, it was self-evident to most people that the Nazi leaders were demonic maniacs. But when the interviews and psychological tests were completed, the answer was no longer so clear. The findings were so disconcerting that portions of the data were hidden away for decades and the research became a topic for vituperative disputes. Gilbert thought that the war criminals’ malice stemmed from depraved psychopathology. Kelley viewed them as morally flawed, ordinary men who were creatures of their environment. Who was right? Drawing on his decades of experience as a psychiatrist and the dramatic advances within psychiatry, psychology, and neuroscience since Nuremberg, Joel E. Dimsdale looks anew at the findings and examines in detail four of the war criminals, Robert Ley, Hermann Göring, Julius Streicher, and Rudolf Hess. Using increasingly precise diagnostic tools, he discovers a remarkably broad spectrum of pathology. Anatomy of Malice takes us on a complex and troubling quest to make sense of the most extreme evil.
Description : This book provides uniques insights and information on every day life and proceedings in detention and trial at Nuremberg, 1945/46. It was penned by a middle-echelon NS-functionary who acted as witness for the accuesed war criminal Arthur Seyss-Inquart, but was later himself tried and sentednced to death by a Yugoslav tribunal. The Austrian-born Dr. Friedrich Rainer proves to be an intelligent, astute and only moderately biased observer with a good legal and historical grasp of his topic.
Description : This study examines the treatment of prominent and lesser-known war criminals in the U.S. Zone of Occupation, covering both the trial and clemency aspects of the American war crimes program. It explores the relationship between the war criminals issue and U.S. efforts to democratize the Germans, German nationalism, U.S. constitutional issues, the cold war, and German rearmament in the 1950s. Based on unpublished sources from both the United States and West Germany, many of which have only recently been declassified, this book provides fresh insight on Nazi war criminals and their treatment, as well as important issues relating to post-war Germany.
Description : Between November 1945 and October 1946, the International Military Tribunal in Nuremberg tried some of the most notorious political and military figures of Nazi Germany. The issue of punishing war criminals was widely discussed by the leaders of the Allied nations, however, well before the end of the war. As Arieh Kochavi demonstrates, the policies finally adopted, including the institution of the Nuremberg trials, represented the culmination of a complicated process rooted in the domestic and international politics of the war years. Drawing on extensive research, Kochavi painstakingly reconstructs the deliberations that went on in Washington and London at a time when the Germans were perpetrating their worst crimes. He also examines the roles of the Polish and Czech governments-in-exile, the Soviets, and the United Nations War Crimes Commission in the formulation of a joint policy on war crimes, as well as the neutral governments' stand on the question of asylum for war criminals. This compelling account thereby sheds new light on one of the most important and least understood aspects of World War II.
Description : A long-awaited memoir of the Nuremberg war crimes trials by one of its key participants. In 1945 Telford Taylor joined the prosecution staff and eventually became chief counsel of the international tribunal established to try top-echelon Nazis. Telford provides an engrossing eyewitness account of one of the most significant events of our century.
Description : Involving over a hundred defendants, the Nuremberg Trials took place between 1945 and 1945 and broke new ground. Twenty-one Nazi leaders were charged with crimes against peace, war crimes, and crimes against humanity - and with having a common plan or conspiracy to commit those crimes. It was the first time judges and members of the judiciary had been charged with enforcing immoral laws. Doctors too stood in the dock for the many hideous medical experiments conducted in concentration camps, while members of the death squads were tried for the indiscriminate murder of civilians. The Nuremberg Trails brought closure to the Second World War.