Description : Sixty years have passed since the Nuremberg trials of the major Nazi war criminals, but that event still stands as the foundation of international justice. Nuremberg not only ignited a revolution in international law but affected domestic law as well with its simple but profound priniciple that every individual accused of crime is entitled to a full and fair hearing.This book reveals how the precedents set at Nuremberg have affected human rights, race relations, medical practice, big business and even Germany's post-war development. It also examines the Nuremberg trials' influence on the modern war crimes trials of tyrants like Slobodan Milosevic and Saddam Hussein.
Description : Towards the close of World War II, world leaders had to address the question of what to do with alleged war criminals. In 1945, an International Military Tribunal (IMT) was established to see that war criminals would face justice. This collection of essays brings together scholars from all over the world to explore the short-term effects of the IMT at Nuremberg and its present day impact on the International Criminal Court. The essays include analyses of Soviet investigations into Nazi war crimes during the war, examinations of the German public's reactions to the Nuremberg Trials, and the immediate effect the IMT had on the Tokyo and Austrian Trials post-1945. Other essays examine changes in the Alien Tort Statute and human rights litigation, the ethics of selective justice, the obstacles facing hybrid tribunals, and how the U.S. legal and constitutional system is often in conflict with the International Criminal Court. Each essay shows the long-standing legacy of the Nuremberg Trials and how the IMT has impacted the field of international law.
Description : The Nuremberg Trial was a landmark in the development of international law; its influence continues to shape our understanding of international criminal justice. This volume presents the most important essays examining the trial from legal, political, historical, and philosophical perspectives. Together, the perspectives provide an overview of the Trial that is invaluable to understanding the significance of the Nuremberg Trial to modern international law andpolitics.
Description : Advocates of the ‘Nuremberg legacy’ emphasize the positive impact of the individualization of responsibility and the establishment of an historical record through judicial procedures for ‘war crimes’. This legacy has been cited in the context of the establishment and operation of the UN ad hoc International Criminal Tribunals in the 1990s, as well as for the International Criminal Court. The problem with this legacy, however, is that it is based solely on the experience of West Germany. Furthermore, the effect of the procedure on post-conflict society has not been empirically examined. This book does this by analyzing the Tokyo Trial, the other International Military Tribunal established after the Second World War, and its impact on post-war Japan. Madoka Futamura examines the short- and long-term impact of the International Military Tribunal for the Far East (the Tokyo Trial), on post-war Japan, in order to improve the understanding of and strategy for ongoing international war crimes tribunals. War Crimes Tribunals and Transitional Justice will be of much interest to students of war crimes, international law, transitional justice and international relations in general.
Description : This comprehensive treatment of post–World War II Allied war crimes trials in the Far East is a significant contribution to a neglected subject. While the Nuremberg and, to a lesser degree, Tokyo tribunals have received considerable attention, this is the first full-length assessment of the entire Far East operation, which involved some 5,700 accused and 2,200 trials. After discussing the Tokyo trial, Piccigallo systematically examines the operations of each Allied nation, documenting procedure and machinery as well as the details of actual trials (including hitherto unpublished photographs) and ending with a statistical summary of cases. This study allows a completely new assessment of the Far East proceedings: with a few exceptions, the trials were carefully and fairly conducted, the efforts of defense counsel and the elaborate review procedures being especially noteworthy. Piccigallo’s approach to this emotion-filled subject is straightforward and evenhanded throughout. He concludes with a discussion of the broader implications of such war crimes trials, a matter of interest to the general reader as well as to specialists in history, law, and international affairs.
Description : This study examines the treatment of prominent and lesser-known war criminals in the U.S. Zone of Occupation, covering both the trial and clemency aspects of the American war crimes program. It explores the relationship between the war criminals issue and U.S. efforts to democratize the Germans, German nationalism, U.S. constitutional issues, the cold war, and German rearmament in the 1950s. Based on unpublished sources from both the United States and West Germany, many of which have only recently been declassified, this book provides fresh insight on Nazi war criminals and their treatment, as well as important issues relating to post-war Germany.
Description : International justice has become a crucial part of the ongoing political debates about the future of shattered societies like Bosnia, Kosovo, Rwanda, Cambodia, and Chile. Why do our governments sometimes display such striking idealism in the face of war crimes and atrocities abroad, and at other times cynically abandon the pursuit of international justice altogether? Why today does justice seem so slow to come for war crimes victims in the Balkans? In this book, Gary Bass offers an unprecedented look at the politics behind international war crimes tribunals, combining analysis with investigative reporting and a broad historical perspective. The Nuremberg trials powerfully demonstrated how effective war crimes tribunals can be. But there have been many other important tribunals that have not been as successful, and which have been largely left out of today's debates about international justice. This timely book brings them in, using primary documents to examine the aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars, World War I, the Armenian genocide, World War II, and the recent wars in the former Yugoslavia. Bass explains that bringing war criminals to justice can be a military ordeal, a source of endless legal frustration, as well as a diplomatic nightmare. The book takes readers behind the scenes to see vividly how leaders like David Lloyd George, Winston Churchill, Franklin Roosevelt, and Bill Clinton have wrestled with these agonizing moral dilemmas. The book asks how law and international politics interact, and how power can be made to serve the cause of justice. Bass brings new archival research to bear on such events as the prosecution of the Armenian genocide, presenting surprising episodes that add to the historical record. His sections on the former Yugoslavia tell--with important new discoveries--the secret story of the politicking behind the prosecution of war crimes in Bosnia, drawing on interviews with senior White House officials, key diplomats, and chief prosecutors at the war crimes tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. Bass concludes that despite the obstacles, legalistic justice for war criminals is nonetheless worth pursuing. His arguments will interest anyone concerned about human rights and the pursuit of idealism in international politics.
Description : Involving over a hundred defendants, the Nuremberg Trials took place between 1945 and 1945 and broke new ground. Twenty-one Nazi leaders were charged with crimes against peace, war crimes, and crimes against humanity - and with having a common plan or conspiracy to commit those crimes. It was the first time judges and members of the judiciary had been charged with enforcing immoral laws. Doctors too stood in the dock for the many hideous medical experiments conducted in concentration camps, while members of the death squads were tried for the indiscriminate murder of civilians. The Nuremberg Trails brought closure to the Second World War.
Description : Between November 1945 and October 1946, 22 high-ranking Nazi officials defended themselves before the International Military Tribunal. Reproducing significant sections of the trial record, this volume also outlines the background to the trial, traces the preparations made by the principle actors in the courtroom, and considers how the prosecution, defense, and tribunal dealt with the counts against the accused.