Description : This book explores childrearing approach as one of the prime sites of the reproduction of social inequality. During the latter half of the 2000s, UK and Scottish government policy placed increasing emphasis on the importance of parenting and the early years as factors likely to have an impact on health, education and employment outcomes. Between 2005 and 2008 – the timeframe considered by this study – a number of policy initiatives emerged which were intended to support “better parenting”. This book argues that what was presented as a model of good parenting was in essence a model of middle class parenting which misunderstood and devalued other parenting approaches. In this study, Lareau’s typology of childrearing approach is used as a means of situating the UK parenting policy discourse within a broader theoretical context and assessing critically the extent to which this policy discourse reflects childrearing approaches in Scotland. The book concludes that family policy between 2005 and 2008 did not fully reflect the variety of childrearing approaches in Scotland, and that mothers whose circumstances and childrearing approach diverged from the policy model may not have been adequately supported.
Description : Change is an integral part of any family's day-to-day experience. Problems, crises, transitions, and change all affect the family as our society progresses into a more complicated future. Researchers and practitioners grapple with such complex issues as divorce, violence, and changing family structures each day and require suggestions and solutions to tough situations associated with families and change. This book integrates scholarship from a variety of disciplines to address the most common problems faced by contemporary families. This new edition includes a chapter on LGBT families and covers military families. In addition. It also has a new student study site and faculty resources.
Description : Multi-item surveys are frequently used to study scores on latent factors, like human values, attitudes and behavior. Such studies often include a comparison, between specific groups of individuals, either at one or multiple points in time. If such latent factor means are to be meaningfully compared, the measurement structures including the latent factor and their survey items should be stable across groups and/or over time, that is ‘invariant’. Recent developments in statistics have provided new analytical tools for assessing measurement invariance (MI). The aim of this special issue is to provide a forum for a discussion of MI, covering some crucial ‘themes’: (1) ways to assess and deal with measurement non-invariance; (2) Bayesian and IRT methods employing the concept of approximate measurement invariance; and (3) new or adjusted approaches for testing MI to fit increasingly complex statistical models and specific characteristics of survey data. The special issue started with a kick-off meeting where all potential contributors shared ideas on potential papers. This expert workshop was organized at Utrecht University in The Netherlands and was funded by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO-VENI-451-11-008). After the kick-off meeting the authors submitted their papers, all of which were reviewed by experts in the field. The papers in the eBook are listed in alphabetical order, but in the editorial the papers are introduced thematically. Although it is impossible to cover all areas of relevant research in the field of MI, papers in this eBook provide insight on important aspects of measurement invariance. We hope that the discussions included in this special issue will stimulate further research on MI and facilitate further discussions to support the understanding of the role of MI in multi-item surveys.
Description : The study contributes in analytical description of spatial diffusion of fertility, in particular, influenced by labour movements of people between places of residence and work. It is assumed that the labour market has externality on the marriage market due to commuting, which, in turn, affects fertility. A model of spatial diffusion of fertility is based on assumption of global and local spillover effects. The global spillover effect, as shifts in fertility norms, is motivated by increasing variance of social interactions of an individual, when places of work and residence are different. One local spillover effect is in response to flows of earnings across space. Another mechanism is related to expected changes in probabilities to find a partner affected by differences in day and night population. The analytical model, in which the effects on fertility of the cited spillovers are decomposed, is constructed in the paper on the base of a model of the demand for children, spatial stock-flow model of a market, and a matching model with a sex imbalance or spatial mismatch as the probability of matching. Three sex imbalances, namely of night-, day-time population and an adjusted to sex imbalance of commuters to residents are empirically tested. Empirical evidence on municipal Swedish data for the period 1994–2008 does not provide any strong evidence of spatial diffusion of fertility. However, there are externalities of labour mobility on fertility due to changes of gender structure of population.
Description : This work approaches the modern phenomenon of online dating, examining the ways people make use of its technical and social potential. In particular, the users' mate preferences, choices, strategies, and interactions are analyzed using the innovative method of click-stream observations and web-questionnaire data. For the purpose of these analyses, two major theories are used - an explicit theory of individual mate choice, and the more general relational theory developed by Pierre Bourdieu, which helps to highlight the social structures both underlying and resulting from mating online. Results show that online dating is not a partner marker free from social structure, but that the traditional social conditions found offline are also reproduced in this virtual setting. In contrast to the picture drawn by media discourse and advertising, online dating represents a partner market which fulfills the promise of happiness in a socially differential way.
Description : This book provides new insights into the significant gap that currently exists between desired and actual fertility in Europe. It examines how people make decisions about having children and demonstrates how the macro-level environment affects micro-level decision-making. Written by an international team of leading demographers and psychologists, the book presents the theoretical and methodological developments of a three-year, European Commission-funded project named REPRO (Reproductive Decision-Making in a Macro-Micro Perspective). It also provides an overview of the research conducted by REPRO researchers both during and after the project. The book examines fertility intentions from quantitative and qualitative perspectives, demonstrates how the macro-level environment affects micro-level decision-making, and offers a multi-level analysis of fertility-related norms across Europe. Overall, this book offers insight into how people make decisions to have children, when they are most likely to act on their decisions, and how different social and policy settings affect their decisions and actions. It will appeal to researchers, graduate students, and policy advisors with an interest in fertility, demography, and life-course decision making.
Description : This title presents twenty-nine topics, prepared by leading scholars in more than 20 countries, providing a comparative analysis of cutting-edge legal topics of the 21st century. Considering topics of vital moment to contemporary legal scholars, the title includes pieces on Surrogate Motherhood, The Balance of Copyright in Comparative Perspective, International Law in Domestic Systems, Constitutional Courts as "Positive Legislators," Same-sex Marriage, Climate Change and the Law, The Regulation of Private Equity, Hedge Funds, and State Funds, and Regulation of Corporate Tax Evasion. Each chapter surveys legal developments in the U.S. and Canada, Europe, Asia, Latin and South America, Africa, and the Middle East in a format that permits the reader easy access to similarities and differences in the approaches of the selected national regimes. This comprehensive volume tells the story of parallel trends in the evolution of legal doctrine despite jurisdictional, cultural, and political barriers. While each of the covered countries stands alone as a sovereign, in a technologically advanced world their disparate systems nonetheless have converged to adopt comparable strategies in dealing with complex legal issues. The volume is a critical addition to the library of any scholar hoping to keep abreast of the major trends in contemporary law.