Description : A long history of biblical exegesis and theological reflection has shaped our understanding of the atonement today. The more prominent highlights of this history have acquired familiar names for the household of faith: Christus Victor, penal substitutionary, subjective, and governmental. Recently the penal substitutionary view, and particularly its misappropriations, has been critiqued, and a lively debate has taken hold within evangelicalism. This book offers a "panel" discussion of four views of atonement maintained by four evangelical scholars. The proponents and their views are: Gregory A. Boyd: Christus Victor view Joel B. Green: Kaleidescopic view Bruce R. Reichenbach: Healing view Thomas R. Schreiner: Penal Substitutionary view Following an introduction written by the editors, each participant first puts forth the case for their view. Each view is followed by responses from the other three participants, noting points of agreement as well as disagreement. This is a book that will help Christians understand the issues, grasp the differences and proceed toward a clearer articulation of their understanding of the atonement.
Description : On the hottest day of the summer of 1935, thirteen-year-old Briony Tallis sees her sister Cecilia strip off her clothes and plunge into the fountain in the garden of their country house. Watching her too is Robbie Turner who, like Cecilia, has recently come down from Cambridge. By the end of that day, the lives of all three will have been changed for ever, as Briony commits a crime for which she will spend the rest of her life trying to atone.
Description : This collection examines what happens when one country’s experience of dealing with its traumatic past is held up as a model for others to follow. In regional and country studies covering Argentina, Canada, Japan, Lebanon, Rwanda, Russia, Turkey, the United States and former Yugoslavia, the authors look at the pitfalls, misunderstandings and perverse effects–but also the promise–of trying to replicate atonement. Going beyond the idea of a global or transnational memory, this book examines the significance of foreign models in atonement practices, and analyses the role of national governments, international organisations, museums, foundations, NGOs and public intellectuals in shaping the idea that good practices of atonement can be learned. The volume also demonstrates how one can productively learn from others by appreciating the complex and contested nature of atonement practices such as Germany’s, and also by finding the necessary resources in the history of one’s own country.
Description : An increasing number of theologians and church leaders are questioning the doctrine of penal substitution. The authors offer a fresh re-articulation of the doctrine and its central role, and engage with over twenty specific objections that have been brought against it.
Description : In this groundbreaking book, Michael Gorman asks why there is no theory or model of the atonement called the Ònew-covenantÓ model, since this understanding of the atonement is likely the earliest in the Christian tradition, going back to Jesus himself. Gorman argues that most models of the atonement over-emphasize the penultimate purposes of JesusÕ death and the ÒmechanicsÓ of the atonement, rather than its ultimate purpose: to create a transformed, Spirit-filled people of God. The New TestamentÕs various atonement metaphors are part of a remarkably coherent picture of JesusÕ death as that which brings about the new covenant (and thus the new community) promised by the prophets, which is also the covenant of peace. Gorman therefore proposes a new model of the atonement that is really not new at allÑthe new-covenant model. He argues that this is not merely an ancient model in need of rediscovery, but also a more comprehensive, integrated, participatory, communal, and missional model than any of the major models in the tradition. Life in this new covenant, Gorman argues, is a life of communal and individual participation in JesusÕ faithful, loving, peacemaking death. Written for both academics and church leaders, this book will challenge all who read it to re-think and re-articulate the meaning of ChristÕs death for us.