Description : This book follows the story of suspected Nazi war criminals in the United States and analyzes their supposed crimes during World War II, their entry into the United States as war refugees in the 1940s and 1950s, and their prosecution in the 1970s and beyond by the U.S. government, specifically by the Office of Special Investigation (OSI). In particular, this book explains why and how such individuals entered the United States, why it took so long to locate and apprehend them, how the OSI was founded, and how the OSI has tried to bring them to justice. This study constitutes a thorough account of 150 suspects and examines how the search for them connects to larger developments in postwar U.S. history. In this latter regard, one major theme includes the role Holocaust memory played in the aforementioned developments. This account adds significantly to the historiographical debate about when and how the Holocaust found its way into American Jewish and also general American consciousness. In general, these suspected Nazi war criminals could come to the United States largely undetected during the early Cold War. In this atmosphere, they morphed from Nazi collaborators to ardent anti-Communists and, outside of some big fish, not even within the Jewish community was their role in the Holocaust much discussed. Only with the Eichmann trial in the early 1960s did interest in other Holocaust perpetrators increase, culminating in the founding of the OSI in the late 1970s. The manuscript makes use, among other documents, of declassified sources from the CIA and FBI, little used trial accounts, and hard to locate OSI records.
Description : John “Iwan” Demjanjuk was at the center of one of history’s most complex war crimes trials. But why did it take almost sixty years for the United States to bring him to justice as a Nazi collaborator?The answer lies in the annals of the Cold War, when fear and paranoia drove American politicians and the U.S. military to recruit “useful” Nazi war criminals to work for the United States in Europe as spies and saboteurs, and to slip them into America through loopholes in U.S. immigration policy. During and after the war, that same immigration policy was used to prevent thousands of Jewish refugees from reaching the shores of America. The long and twisted saga of John Demjanjuk, a postwar immigrant and auto mechanic living a quiet life in Cleveland until 1977, is the final piece in the puzzle of American government deceit. The White House, the Departments of War and State, the FBI, and the CIA supported policies that harbored Nazi war criminals and actively worked to hide and shelter them from those who dared to investigate and deport them. The heroes in this story are men and women such as Congresswoman Elizabeth Holtzman and Justice Department prosecutor Eli Rosenbaum, who worked for decades to hold hearings, find and investigate alleged Nazi war criminals, and successfully prosecute them for visa fraud. But it was not until the conviction of John Demjanjuk in Munich in 2011 as an SS camp guard serving at the Sobibor death camp that this story of deceit can be told for what it is: a shameful chapter in American history. Riveting and deeply researched, Useful Enemies is the account of one man’s criminal past and its devastating consequences, and the story of how America sacrificed its moral authority in the wake of history’s darkest moment.
Description : In the spring of 1942, Nazi forces occupying the Ukraine launched a wave of executions targeting the region's remaining Jewish communities. These mass shootings were open, public, and intimate. Although the victims themselves could never testify against their killers, many eyewitnesses could and did identify the perpetrators. Among these communities, three local men from the villages of Serniki, Israylovka, and Gnivan were intimately implicated in such killing operations: Ivan Polyukhovich, a forester in the German-controlled administration; Heinrich Wagner, aVolksdeutscherliaison officer; and Mikolay Berezowsky, a member of the local police force. More than fifty years later, these three men were arrested and brought to trial in Australia for their alleged war crimes. Daviborshch's Cartis more than an account of Holocaust perpetrators who found a safe haven in postwar Australia. It is also the story of the Holocaust in the Ukraine, the War Crimes Act, Nazi policies, and the ways in which future generations translate history into law, archives into proof, and law into justice. Based on a review of previously unexamined historical and legal documents and transcripts,Daviborshch's Cartoffers the first critical examination of Australian attempts to bring alleged Nazi criminals to justice.
Description : Reviewing recently declassified CIA documents, this book provides a balanced but critical discussion of the contribution of American intelligence officials to the Nuremberg war crimes trials. Giving new details of how senior Nazi war criminals, such as SS General Karl Wolff, were provided with effective immunity deals, partly as a reward for their wartime cooperation with US intelligence officials, including Allen Dulles, former CIA Director, the author also discusses the role of such officials in mobilizing the unique resources of a modern intelligence agency to provide important trial testimony and vital documentary evidence. Nazi War Crimes, US Intelligence and Selective Prosecution at Nuremberg argues that both war crimes prosecutors and intelligence officials can engage in mutually beneficial collaborations, but that both sides need to recognize and appreciate the problems that may arise from the fact that these institutions are required to operate according to different, and in some cases contradictory, agendas. This topical book gives those studying, or with interests in, international law, criminal law and history an insight into the debates surrounding international war crimes, within the context of the Nuremberg war crimes trials.
Description : This collection is an integrated body of essays that provides a comprehensive range of viewpoints on how international legal and political mechanisms can address the catastrophic consequences of deadly conflict in today's world. The authors are drawn from a diverse range of disciplines encompassing law, peace studies, international relations and criminal justice and include judges, members of the military, academics, United Nations personnel and representatives of non-government organisations.
Description : Motivated by moral outrage, a small number of individuals in America today is vigorously protesting the presence here of accused Nazi war criminals and collaborators. The Outraged Conscience documents their individual efforts. A vital addition to the literature on the Holocaust, this book looks closely at the separate activities of these dedicated seekers of justice. It reveals that they are a diverse lot, each with different reasons for total commitment to the issue. The Outraged Conscience also probes more general moral questions: Can there be valid justification for the United States government allowing Nazi war criminals to enter the country and, in some cases, employing them? Is there a satisfactory explanation for the years of inaction by government officials, major American Jewish organizations, veteran groups, and the news media on this practice? The lives, stories, and reasons for involvement of these justice seekers are part of modern American history. This book puts their stories on the record.
Description : In the 1970s news broke that former Nazis had escaped prosecution and were living the good life in the United States. Outrage swept the nation, and the public outcry put extreme pressure on the U.S. government to investigate these claims and to deport offenders. The subsequent creation of the Office of Special Investigations marked the official beginning of Nazi-hunting in the United States, but it was far from the end. Thirty years later, in November 2010, the New York Times obtained a copy of a confidential 2006 report by the Justice Department titled "The Office of Special Investigations: Striving for Accountability in the Aftermath of the Holocaust." The six-hundred-page report held shocking secrets regarding the government's botched attempts to hunt down and prosecute Nazis in the United States and its willingness to harbor and even employ these criminals after World War II. Drawing from this report as well as other sources, Spies, Lies, and Citizenship exposes scandalous new information about infamous Nazi perpetrators, including Andrija Artucković, Klaus Barbie, and Arthur Rudolph, who were sheltered and protected in the United States and beyond, and the ongoing attempts to bring the remaining Nazis, such as Josef Mengele, to justice.
Description : In this fascinating book, Vic Satzewich traces one hundred and twenty-five years of Ukranian migration, from the economic migration at the end of the nineteenth century to the political migration during the inter-war period and throughout the 1960s and 1980s resulting from the troubled relationship between Russia and the Ukraine. The author looks at the ways the Ukranian Diaspora has retained its identity, at the different factions within it and its response to the war crimes trials of the 1980s.
Description : CROWCASS is an acronym for Central Registry of War Criminals and Security Suspects. This volume combines all four of the final CROWCASS publications which were in print at the end of 1947. CROWCASS was established to assist the United Nations War Crimes Commission and Allied governments in tracing ex-enemy nationals suspected of committing war crimes or atrocities in Europe. The organisation was originally set up by the Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF) in the spring of 1945. Operated by British and American military personnel with the assistance of civilian administrative staff the object was to provide a pool of information on persons in Allied detention and those still wanted for interrogation or apprehension in connection with potential war crimes. National governments were invited to draw on this information and were also encouraged to contribute. To Allied military investigators the CROWCASS registers became a sort of Nazi Hunter's bible BUT they had to be treated with considerable caution as many of the individuals were merely being sought for interrogation or simply to act as witnesses. Added to this, of course, all the cited instances of murder, pillage, brutality, torture etc that were contained within the CROWCASS registers were only allegations until those responsible were required to answer charges in an Allied court. There are over 50,000 Germans and other nationals in this combined volume. Many of those named will have been arrested and charged in connection with the crimes they were accused of. Whilst others will have escaped apprehension by the Allied authorities and may still be at large. Within these pages are the alleged perpetrators of tens of thousands of war crimes. They range from civilians and low ranking members of the armed forces to Adolf Hitler himself (CROWCASS Case Registry No.1 -Wanted for murder by Poland, Czechoslovakia and Belgium). Other notable names include Hitler's No.2 Martin Bormann, genocide architects Adolf Eichmann and Alois Brunner (never captured and possibly still alive), SS doctor Josef Mengele, Gestapo chief Klaus Barbie and Malmedy/ Wormhoudt massacre perpetrator SS General Wilhelm Mohnke.
Description : A Compilation Of Articles From Various Sources-Relating To The Success And Failures Of Cia In Field Of Intelligence. The Study Is Divided Under 60 Headings Relating To This Sensitive Subject.
Description : Canada's Jews covers the 240-year period from the beginnings of the Jewish community in the 1760s to the present day, illuminating the golden chain of Jewish tradition, religion, language, economy, and history as established and renewed in the northern lands.
Description : At the end of the Second World War some of the highest ranking members of the Nazi party escaped from justice. Some of them are names that have resonated deeply in twentieth-century history - Eichmann, Mengele, Martin Bormann and Klaus Barbie - not just for the monstrosity of their crimes, but also because of the shadowy nature of their post-war existence, holed up in the depths of Latin America, always one step ahead of their pursuers. The nature of their escape was as gripping as any good thriller. They were aided and abetted by corrupt Catholic priests in the Vatican, they travelled down secret 'rat lines', hid in foreboding castles high in the Austrian alps, and were taken in by shady Argentine secret agents. The attempts to bring them to justice are no less dramatic, with vengeful Holocaust survivors, inept politicians, and daring plots to kidnap or assassinate the fugitives. Guy Walters has travelled the world in pursuit of the real account of how the Nazis escaped at the end of the war, the attempts, sometimes successful, to bring them to justice, and what really happened to those that got away. He has interviewed Nazi hunters, former members of Mossad, and poured through archives across the globe to bring this remarkable period of our recent history to dramatic and vivid life.
Description : Volume 3 addresses the direct enforcement system, namely international criminal tribunals, how they came about and how they functioned, tracing that history from the end of WWI to the ICC, including the post-WWII experiences. They address the IMT, IMTFE, ICTY, ICTR, the mixed model tribunals and the ICC. It also contains a chapter which addresses some of the problems of the direct enforcement system, namely the general, procedural, evidentiary, and sanctions parts of ICL, which is largely made of what is contained in the statutes of the tribunals mentioned above as well as the jurisprudence of the established tribunals. In addition this volume addresses national experiences with the enforcement of certain international crimes. It is divided into 4 chapters which are titled as: Chapter 1: History of International Investigations and Prosecutions (International Criminal Accountability; International Criminal Justice in Historical Perspective); Chapter 2: International Criminal Tribunals and Mixed Model Tribunals (The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia; The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda; The Making of the International Criminal Court; Mixed Models of International Criminal Justice; Special Court for Sierra Leone; Special Tribunal for Cambodia; East Timor); Chapter 3: National Prosecutions for International Crimes (National Prosecutions for International Crimes; National Prosecutions of International Crimes: A Historical Overview; The French Experience; The Belgian Experience; The Dutch Experience; Indonesia; The U.S. War Crimes Act of 1996; Enforcing ICL Violations with Civil Remedies: The Case of the U.S. Alien Tort Claims Act); Chapter 4: Contemporary Issues in International Criminal Law Doctrine and Practice (Command Responsibility; Joint Criminal Enterprise; The Responsibility of Peacekeepers; The General Part: Judicial Developments; Ne bis in idem; Plea Bargains; Issues Pertaining to the Evidentiary Part of International Criminal Law; Penalties and Sentencing; Penalties: From Leipzig to Arusha; Victims’ Rights in International Law).
Description : Volume 3 addresses the direct enforcement system, namely international criminal tribunals, how they came about and how they functioned, tracing that history from the end of WWI to the ICC, including the post-WWII experiences. They address the IMT, IMTFE, ICTY, ICTR, the mixed model tribunals and the ICC. It also contains a chapter which addresses some of the problems of the direct enforcement system, namely the general, procedural, evidentiary, and sanctions parts of ICL, which is largely made of what is contained in the statutes of the tribunals mentioned above as well as the jurisprudence of the established tribunals. In addition this volume addresses national experiences with the enforcement of certain international crimes. It is divided into 4 chapters which are titled as: Chapter 1: History of International Investigations and Prosecutions (International Criminal Accountability; International Criminal Justice in Historical Perspective); Chapter 2: International Criminal Tribunals and Mixed Model Tribunals (The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia; The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda; The Making of the International Criminal Court; Mixed Models of International Criminal Justice; Special Court for Sierra Leone; Special Tribunal for Cambodia; East Timor); Chapter 3: National Prosecutions for International Crimes (National Prosecutions for International Crimes; National Prosecutions of International Crimes: A Historical Overview; The French Experience; The Belgian Experience; The Dutch Experience; Indonesia; The U.S. War Crimes Act of 1996; Enforcing ICL Violations with Civil Remedies: The Case of the U.S. Alien Tort Claims Act); Chapter 4: Contemporary Issues in International Criminal Law Doctrine and Practice (Command Responsibility; Joint Criminal Enterprise; The Responsibility of Peacekeepers; The General Part: Judicial Developments; Ne bis in idem; Plea Bargains; Issues Pertaining to the Evidentiary Part of International Criminal Law; Penalties and Sentencing; Penalties: From Leipzig to Arusha; Victimsa (TM) Rights in International Law).
Description : Diese Reihe bietet erstmals eine Basissammlung von Faksimiles englischsprachiger historischer Artikel zu allen Aspekten der Vernichtung der europäischen Juden. Die große Anzahl von annähernd 300 Aufsätzen aus 84 Zeitschriften und Sammlungen ermöglicht den Lesern, sich einen Überblick über diesen Themenkomplex zu verschaffen. Die Reihe beginnt mit einem Rückblick auf die Wurzeln des Antisemitismus und einer Darstellung der verschiedenen wissenschaftlichen Methoden zur Erforschung des Holocaust. Die Reihe endet mit der Dokumentation der Befreiung der Konzentrationslager und mit Aufsätzen zu den Kriegsverbrecherprozessen. Der Erscheinungszeitraum umfasst die Jahre 1950 bis 1987, zu den Verfassern gehören beispielsweise Jakob Katz, Saul Friedländer, Eberhard Jäckel, Bruno Bettelheim und Herbert A. Strauss.
Description : This state-of-the-art account gives readers the tools to understand why antisemitism is such a controversial subject. It acquaints readers with the ambiguities inherent in the historical relationship between Jews and Christians and shows these ambiguities in play in the unfolding relationship between Jews and Canadians of other religions and ethnicities. It examines present relationships in light of history and considers particularly the influence of antisemitism on the social, religious, and political history of the Canadian Jewish community. A History of Antisemitism in Canada builds on the foundation of numerous studies on antisemitism in general and on antisemitism in Canada in particular, as well as on the growing body of scholarship in Canadian Jewish studies. It attempts to understand the impact of antisemitism on Canada as a whole and is the first comprehensive account of antisemitism and its effect on the Jewish community of Canada. The book will be valuable to students and scholars not only of Canadian Jewish studies and Canadian ethnic studies but of Canadian history.
Description : This factual account of German war crimes of World War II is a formidable indictment of Nazi brutality and of the monstrous organisation which so terrorised occupied Europe and murdered at least 12 million civilians. Along with The Knights of Bushido: A Short History of Japanese War Crimes, by the same author, it was a phenomenal best-seller when first published. Drawing on documentary evidence submitted to the Nuremberg Trials and brilliantly written by an expert intimately connected to the prosecution of war criminals, this searing condemnation of the Third Reich's crimes is factual, objective and unstinting in its efforts to expose the truth behind real or alleged atrocities. It examines Hitler's instruments of tyranny and repression – the SS, Gestapo and Army; German crimes against prisoners of war; outrages committed on the high seas; crimes against civilian populations; the mass use of slave labour; the concentration camps; and the 'Final Solution'.
Description : The Pacific War is an umbrella term that refers collectively to a disparate set of wars, however, this book presents a strong case for considering this assemblage of conflicts as a collective, singular war. It highlights the genuine thematic commonalities in the legacies of war that cohere across the Asia-Pacific and shows how the wars, both individually and collectively, wrought dramatic change to the geo-political makeup of the region. This book discusses the cultural, political and social implications of the Pacific War and engages with debates over the war’s impact, legacies, and continuing cultural resonances. Crucially, it examines the meanings and significance of the Second World War from a truly international perspective and the contributors present fascinating case studies that highlight the myriad of localised idiosyncrasies in how the Pacific War has been remembered and deployed in political contexts. The chapters trace the shared legacy that the individual wars had on demographics, culture and mobility across the Asia Pacific, and demonstrate how in the aftermath of the war political borders were transformed and new nation states emerged. The book also considers racial and sexual tensions which accompanied the arrival of both Allied and Axis personnel and their long lasting consequences, as well as the impact returning veterans and the war crime trials that followed the conflict had on societies in the region. In doing so, it succeeds in illuminating the events and issues that unfolded in the weeks, months, and indeed decades after the war. This interdisciplinary volume examines the aftermaths and legacies of war for individuals, communities, and institutions across South, Southeast, and East Asia, Oceania, and the Pacific world. As such, it will be welcomed by students and scholars of Asian history, modern history and cultural history, as well as by those interested in issues of memory and commemoration.