Description : This book follows the story of suspected Nazi war criminals in the United States and analyzes their supposed crimes during World War II, their entry into the United States as war refugees in the 1940s and 1950s, and their prosecution in the 1970s and beyond by the U.S. government, specifically by the Office of Special Investigation (OSI). In particular, this book explains why and how such individuals entered the United States, why it took so long to locate and apprehend them, how the OSI was founded, and how the OSI has tried to bring them to justice. This study constitutes a thorough account of 150 suspects and examines how the search for them connects to larger developments in postwar U.S. history. In this latter regard, one major theme includes the role Holocaust memory played in the aforementioned developments. This account adds significantly to the historiographical debate about when and how the Holocaust found its way into American Jewish and also general American consciousness. In general, these suspected Nazi war criminals could come to the United States largely undetected during the early Cold War. In this atmosphere, they morphed from Nazi collaborators to ardent anti-Communists and, outside of some big fish, not even within the Jewish community was their role in the Holocaust much discussed. Only with the Eichmann trial in the early 1960s did interest in other Holocaust perpetrators increase, culminating in the founding of the OSI in the late 1970s. The manuscript makes use, among other documents, of declassified sources from the CIA and FBI, little used trial accounts, and hard to locate OSI records.
Description : How the United States protected John Demjanjuk: “A richly researched, gripping narrative about war, suffering, survival, corruption, injustice and morality” (Kirkus Reviews, starred). John “Iwan” Demjanjuk was at the center of one of history’s most complex war crimes trials. But why did it take almost sixty years for the United States to bring him to justice as a Nazi collaborator? The answer lies in the annals of the Cold War, when fear and paranoia drove American politicians and the U.S. military to recruit “useful” Nazi war criminals to work for the United States in Europe as spies and saboteurs and to slip them into America through loopholes in U.S. immigration policy. During and after the war, that same immigration policy was used to prevent thousands of Jewish refugees from reaching the shores of America. The long and twisted saga of John Demjanjuk, a postwar immigrant and auto mechanic living a quiet life in Cleveland until 1977, is the final piece in the puzzle of American government deceit. The White House, the Departments of War and State, the FBI, and the CIA supported policies that harbored Nazi war criminals and actively worked to hide and shelter them from those who dared to investigate and deport them. The heroes in this story are men and women such as Congresswoman Elizabeth Holtzman and Justice Department prosecutor Eli Rosenbaum, who worked for decades to hold hearings, find and investigate alleged Nazi war criminals, and successfully prosecute them for visa fraud. But it was not until the conviction of John Demjanjuk in Munich in 2011 as an SS camp guard serving at the Sobibor death camp that this story of deceit can be told for what it is: a shameful chapter in American history. Riveting and deeply researched, Useful Enemies is the account of one man’s criminal past and its devastating consequences, and the story of how America sacrificed its moral authority in the wake of history’s darkest moment.
Description : Motivated by moral outrage, a small number of individuals in America today is vigorously protesting the presence here of accused Nazi war criminals and collaborators. The Outraged Conscience documents their individual efforts. A vital addition to the literature on the Holocaust, this book looks closely at the separate activities of these dedicated seekers of justice. It reveals that they are a diverse lot, each with different reasons for total commitment to the issue. The Outraged Conscience also probes more general moral questions: Can there be valid justification for the United States government allowing Nazi war criminals to enter the country and, in some cases, employing them? Is there a satisfactory explanation for the years of inaction by government officials, major American Jewish organizations, veteran groups, and the news media on this practice? The lives, stories, and reasons for involvement of these justice seekers are part of modern American history. This book puts their stories on the record.
Description : In the spring of 1942, Nazi forces occupying the Ukraine launched a wave of executions targeting the region's remaining Jewish communities. These mass shootings were open, public, and intimate. Although the victims themselves could never testify against their killers, many eyewitnesses could and did identify the perpetrators. Among these communities, three local men from the villages of Serniki, Israylovka, and Gnivan were intimately implicated in such killing operations: Ivan Polyukhovich, a forester in the German-controlled administration; Heinrich Wagner, aVolksdeutscherliaison officer; and Mikolay Berezowsky, a member of the local police force. More than fifty years later, these three men were arrested and brought to trial in Australia for their alleged war crimes. Daviborshch's Cartis more than an account of Holocaust perpetrators who found a safe haven in postwar Australia. It is also the story of the Holocaust in the Ukraine, the War Crimes Act, Nazi policies, and the ways in which future generations translate history into law, archives into proof, and law into justice. Based on a review of previously unexamined historical and legal documents and transcripts,Daviborshch's Cartoffers the first critical examination of Australian attempts to bring alleged Nazi criminals to justice.
Description : Towards the close of World War II, world leaders had to address the question of what to do with alleged war criminals. In 1945, an International Military Tribunal (IMT) was established to see that war criminals would face justice. This collection of essays brings together scholars from all over the world to explore the short-term effects of the IMT at Nuremberg and its present day impact on the International Criminal Court. The essays include analyses of Soviet investigations into Nazi war crimes during the war, examinations of the German public's reactions to the Nuremberg Trials, and the immediate effect the IMT had on the Tokyo and Austrian Trials post-1945. Other essays examine changes in the Alien Tort Statute and human rights litigation, the ethics of selective justice, the obstacles facing hybrid tribunals, and how the U.S. legal and constitutional system is often in conflict with the International Criminal Court. Each essay shows the long-standing legacy of the Nuremberg Trials and how the IMT has impacted the field of international law.
Description : 60 years after the trials of the main German war criminals, the articles in this book attempt to assess the Nuremberg Trials from a historical and legal point of view, and to illustrate connections, contradictions and consequences. In view of constantly reoccurring reports of mass crimes from all over the world, we have only reached the halfway point in the quest for an effective system of international criminal justice. With the legacy of Nuremberg in mind, this volume is a contribution to the search for answers to questions of how the law can be applied effectively and those committing crimes against humanity be brought to justice for their actions.